DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis - PBS
From RNA to Protein Synthesis - YouTube
Instruction 1: You will be simulating the process of protein synthesis from DNA that occurs in every cell and the effects of mutations on the proteins that are produced.
DNA and Protein Synthesis | S-cool, the revision website
Instruction 3: To produce proteins, each gene in the original DNA strand must be transcribed into an mRNA molecule. Do this by pressing the 1-TRANSCRIBE button.
DNA -> RNA -> protein DNA: ..
Genes start locations in DNA in this model don't use promoters to initiate transcription of a particular gene, like they do in reality. Rather, the start codon (encoded by a three letter sequence of nucleotides [ATG], when read from a particular direction), signals the start of transcription for mRNA. In reality, ATG start condons are the first codon in mRNA that is translated by ribosome. Therefore, in reality mRNA often contains additional non-translated nucleotides, before the start codon in mRNA and additional non-translated nucleotides after the stop codons in mRNA.
DNA vs. RNA and protein synthesis Short Paragraph
In this model nucleotides are molecules, that when joined together, make up the structural units of DNA. Visually this appears as single nitrogen base (represented as a colored polygon) and 1 phosphate group (represented as a yellow circle). Only a single strand of the double stranded DNA molecule is show in this model, as the protein synthesis process starts with the doubled stranded DNA being unwound into two single strands to permit mRNA production.
RNA and protein synthesis DNA vs
Some mutations introduce brand new genes into a strand of DNA. Some mutations remove an entire gene in a strand of DNA. Some only affect a few of the amino acids that used in protein synthesis. Others affect many. And some mutation affect the non-coding regions of DNA, resulting in no effects in the proteins produced by the cell.