Poultry as a reservoir for foodborne disease ..
A hypothesis for the initiation of COPD European Respiratory Society
During the 19th century, cholera spread repeatedly in 6 pandemic waves, moving from the Bay of Bengal to most of the world. During the first half of the 20th century, the disease was confined largely to Asia, except for a major epidemic in Egypt in 1947. The current worldwide occurrence of cholera -- termed the 7th pandemic -- started in 1961. Cholera of the El Tor biotype (i.e., the same biotype as in Haiti) spread worldwide from Indonesia, reaching the Asian mainland in 1963, and Africa in 1970. The disease has has remained epidemic in many countries of Asia and Africa. After nearly a century of absence,cholera reached Latin America in 1991, causing explosive epidemics in many countries, including Peru. By 1994, approximately one million cholera cases had been recorded in Latin America. While the 7th pandemic was underway, scientists began to recognize environmental reservoirs of cholera, including the coastal waters of the Gulf of Bengal and in the southern United States by the Gulf of Mexico. As noted by Cairncross, by the 1980sVibrio cholerae became viewed as not just a human pathogen spread from feces to mouth, but rather as an aquatic bacterium which can survive in coastal waters for long periods of time, and then infect humans (3, 4).
Signs and Symptoms of Stomach Cancer - Verywell
Analytic epidemiologic study
A study that evaluates the association between exposure to hazardous substances and disease by testing scientific hypotheses.
12/03/2012 · Our results support the hypothesis that P
Hypothesis: Causative variants of Crohn’s Disease will be discovered by exome sequencing and SNP analysis in a 3-generation family in which the first affected patient, a fraternal twin, has affected offspring while the unaffected twin does not.
the major reservoirs of disease are dogs or ..
Geographic information system (GIS)
A mapping system that uses computers to collect, store, manipulate, analyze, and display data. For example, GIS can show the concentration of a contaminant within a community in relation to points of reference such as streets and homes.