For example, judgments of frequency are

Studies of delay discounting typically have involved choices between smaller, immediate outcomes and larger, delayed outcomes. In a study of delay discounting in humans, Green et al. () added a period of time prior to both outcomes, creating a delay common to both. They found that the subjective value of the more delayed reward was well described by a hyperboloid discounting function and that the degree to which that outcome was discounted decreased as the common delay increased. In two experiments, we examined the effect of adding a common delay on the discounting of food rewards in pigeons. In Experiment 1, an adjusting-amount procedure was used to establish discounting functions when the common delay was 0, 3, 5, and 10s, and different stimuli signaled time to the smaller, sooner and larger, later rewards. In contrast to humans, the pigeons showed increases in the degree of discounting when a common delay was added. In Experiment 2, the delay common to both rewards and the delay unique to the larger, later reward were each specifically signaled. With this procedure, the degree of discounting decreased as the common delay increased, a result consistent with that obtained with humans (Green et al., ). These findings reveal fundamental similarities between pigeons’ and humans’ choice behavior, and provide strong interspecies support for the hypothesis that choice between delayed outcomes is based on comparison of their hyperbolically discounted present subjective values.

The Delay Hypothesis: The Manifestation of Media ..

For example, both of the following rules may apply to the display in a single trial.

ARTICLE The Delay Hypothesis: The Manifestation of Media ..

The present findings also demonstrate how research with human and non-human animals can be mutually informative and, as such, are consistent with the view that species comparisons can increase our understanding of human decision making (Hackenberg, ; Shettleworth, ). Although the results of Experiment 1 suggested striking differences between humans and pigeons with respect to their choice between delayed rewards, consideration of recently proposed models of human discounting (Green et al., ) suggested critical procedural changes that were made in Experiment 2. The results observed with this modified procedure, in turn, revealed fundamental similarities between pigeons’ and humans’ choice behavior. More specifically, the present findings extend the generality of the hyperboloid discounting model and provide interspecies support for the hypothesis that choice between delayed outcomes is based on comparison of their hyperbolically discounted present values.

A formalization of the comparator hypothesis.

On this view, the end product of adaptation to an ORD is arecalibration of proprioceptive position sense at one or more pointsof articulation in the body (see the entry on ). Asyou practice reaching for a target while wearing laterally displacingprisms, for example, the muscle spindles, joint receptors, and Golgitendon organs in your shoulder and arm continue to generate the samepatterns of action potentials as before, but the proprioceptive andkinaesthetic meaning assigned to them by their“consumers” in the brain undergoes change: whereas beforethey signified that your arm was moving along one path through theseven-dimensional space of possible arm configurations (the human armhas seven degrees of freedom: three at the wrist, one at the elbow,and three at the shoulder), they gradually come to signify that it ismoving along a different path in that kinematic space, namely, the oneconsistent with the prismatically distorted visual feedback you arereceiving. Similar recalibrations are possible with respect to sourcesof information for head and eye position. After adapting to laterallydisplacing prisms, signals from receptors in your neck that previouslysignified the alignment of your head and torso, for example, may cometo signify that your head is turned slightly to the side. Fordiscussion, see Harris 1965, 1980 and Welch 1978: chap. 3.

Serial-position effect - Wikipedia

Perhaps the most important piece of apparatus in this whole jumbled mess was the legendary "Montauk Chair" upon which Duncan Cameron sat and radiated his psychic powers with the intent of creating artificial reality vortexes. The ultimate purpose of these experiments was to not only alter physical reality, but to alter as well the mental landscape of all humankind. The chair itself — so states Preston Nichols — was developed in the 1950's with "sensor technology" that could display a person's thoughts, and was in essence a mind-reading machine. This device operated on the principle of tuning into the electromagnetic fields of human beings and translating their ethereal or Orgone Energy into a tangible form, ala thought-into-matter. The object in question, which accomplished this daunting task, was the aforementioned "Chair." This is where Duncan Cameron would sit, his head blazing like a psychic furnace, and paint a mental landscape of the gods. It was in this regard that Duncan himself, it has been said, became likened unto a god. To make the legend even more abstruse, the Montauk bunch claims that beings from the Sirius star system are also tangled up in this convoluted tale. Apparently, the Sirians provided the basic design, and then Montauk scientists took those original blueprints and developed The Chair. The Chair, in turn, was hooked into a complex grid of computers and amplifiers. Eventually The Chair (which, in appearance, was not unlike a Lay- z- Boy lounger) was fine-tuned to the point where a person could visualize something and a 3D image of those thought-forms would appear on a computer monitor, and then could be printed out. But it's only when Duncan Cameron came into the picture that things really started getting carried away. In a deep psychic trance state, Cameron was able to visualize a solid object and actually make it appear from out of nowhere. This was accomplished via an amplifier that would transmit a matrix, and then build up enough power to materialize whatever Cameron mentally cooked up, under the direction of his Montauk handlers. As indicated, Cameron took part in these experiments in an altered state of consciousness. In this regard, agents of the CIA and/or NSA — under the auspices of MK-ULTRA funded experiments — had given Cameron special training. The emphasis of this programming focused on diverting the mind through sexual bliss. It was then that the "primitive mind" would surface, as the individual — in this case, Mr. Duncan Cameron — would be transferred into an "orgasmic trance" state. His primitive mind — now at the disposal of nefarious Montauk operatives — would then become extremely suggestible, and therefore controllable. In time — through the use of The Chair — it was eventually discovered that Cameron had the power to bend time, thus creating vortexes, or time portals, not unlike the concept from the old TV series, Time Tunnel. In fact, those who have actually traveled through this time portal have described it like a spiral, such as that found in the aforementioned television series. Anyway, when Cameron would envision certain alternate realities in past and future time, the vortex could then be copied to the hard drive of Montauk computers. These experiments eventually led to a project with the express purpose of opening a time door to the USS Eldridge in 1943. All of this high-tech time travel tinkering is what allegedly sucked such players as Duncan Cameron and Al Bielek into the Montauk vortex. Bielek, for instance — in another incarnation as Duncan Cameron's brother, Edward — was a member of the crew on board the USS Eldridge, and because of his involvement with the Montauk Project has been jettisoned willy-nilly back and forth in time repeatedly, in the process leaving one's body behind and assuming another. But once again we're getting ahead of ourselves — or behind ourselves, depending on where you are currently residing in the space-time continuum…

10 Tough Questions for the Atheist to Answer - Cross …

One of the Montauk Project psychotronic subjects in question was none other than super-psychic Duncan Cameron. By using psychotronics in concert with Duncan's surreal psychic abilities, Montauk scientists were somehow able to intensify his powers vis-à-vis the creation of alternate reality vortexes, if you follow my drift. (Yes, this all gets quite convoluted, and takes an enormous suspension of belief if we are to take seriously even a small portion of the mighty Montauk mythos...) This psychotronic experimentation consisted of operating the Montauk transmitter at different pulse widths, different pulse rates, and varying frequencies. The ultimate goal behind all of these fantastic fiddlings was to see how brain waves could be changed and entrained, whether it be controlling a super psychic like Duncan Cameron to create the aforementioned alternate reality vortexes used as time travel portals, or the ability to generate transmissions that could change people's moods, and cause agitation. What we're describing here could be classified as non-lethal weaponry, though I've heard disturbing reports from my colleagues in the mind control research community that microwave transmissions of a certain frequency could potentially boil someone's brain into oblivion, which certainly qualifies as something quite "lethal", as opposed to "non." The ultimate goal of all this bad craziness is total control of the human species, which apparently is what the Montauk Project was all about. Other uses for these microwave-boosted transmissions include the ability to focus on a car and stop all electrical functioning. This, of course, is the same effect commonly reported in UFO sightings and attributed to alien craft. Once again this illustrates how high tech black ops can be used to replicate a so-called alien encounter. As Dr. Michael Persinger has demonstrated, certain frequencies approximate the alien abduction phenomenon in the brains of human beings. So perhaps the entire Montauk Project is exactly that: an MK-ULTRA mindfuck designed to mess with the mass mind of humanity to see how far it can push the general populace towards complete and utter lunacy. It has also been suggested that certain forms of electromagnetic waves can affect weather patterns from great distances. This could explain the strange summer snows that have visited the town of Montauk in past years.

The Subtle Things That Make Men More Attractive - …

In general, the extent to which adaptation occurs depends not onthe availability of reafferent stimulation, but rather on the presenceof either of two related kinds of information concerning “thepresence and nature of the optical rearrangement” (Welch 1978:24). Following Welch, we shall refer to this view as the“information hypothesis”.