Limb prostheses include both upper- and lower-extremity prostheses

Østlie, K., I. M. Lesjø, R. J. Franklin, B. Garfelt, O. H. Skjeldal, and P. Magnus. 2012b. Prosthesis use in adult acquired major upper-limb amputees: Patterns of wear, prosthetic skills and the actual use of prostheses in activities of daily life. 7(6):479-493.

Myoelectric Prosthetics Introduction to Upper Limb Prosthetics

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Studies reporting the overall functionality of commercially available devices compared with limbs of intact subjects, as measured by the overall index-of-function score of the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP), show wide variation in mitigation of impairments of grasp. To date, no terminal device tested has been shown to restore function completely to all major grasp patterns. Body-powered terminal devices may be VO or VC, with some evidence that VC devices are associated with faster task performance as measured by the SHAP (). SHAP index-of-function scores for several two-joint, single-degree-of-freedom terminal devices have been reported to be about 74 percent and 43-84 percent, respectively, compared with the functionality typical of an intact hand (; ; ). The SHAP index-of-function scores for several commercially available multiarticulating hands have been reported in multiple studies: 52-76 percent for the i-limb Hand (; ), 87-88 percent for the i-limb Pulse (), and 75-89 percent for the Michelangelo hand (). Other research has found that myoelectric prosthesis users had average index-of-function scores of 43-50 percent compared with an intact hand ().

Lake Prosthetics and Research - Upper Limb Prosthetics

Several studies have found substantially lower dexterity in users of upper-limb prostheses of all amputation levels compared with age-matched norms (), as well as slower time to complete movements and activities (; ). Slower speeds are attributable, in part, to the fact that prosthesis users must perform more discrete submovements to perform basic tasks (; ). In addition, grasping is uncoupled from reaching when one is using a prosthesis, which makes reaching for and grasping an object take longer (; ; ).

Baschuk, C. 2016. Application of elevated vacuum suspension in upper-limb prosthetics.  12(3).
Burger, H., and Č. Marinček. 1994. Upper limb prosthetic use in Slovenia.  18(1):25-33.

Myoelectric Prosthetic Components for the Upper Limb

Therapy services and a team approach to amputation care are necessary throughout all phases of prosthetic rehabilitation (; ; ; ; ). Prosthetic training can improve skill in prosthesis use and help those with upper-limb amputation make better functional use of their prostheses (; ; ). Multiple studies have found an association between long-term prosthetic use and receipt of prosthetic training (; ; ), in particular, individualized and “sufficient” prosthetic training (,). In contrast, other studies have found that the quality or amount of prosthetic training was not strongly associated with prosthesis use (; ; ; ). This finding is consistent with that of prior research showing that lack of technical skill in using a myoelectric prosthesis

Hanson, W. 2003. Upper limb prosthetic components: Function vs. appearance.  13(6):29.

Advanced Upper Limb Prosthetic Devices: Implications …

The men celebrated the start of the Independence Day weekend by becoming the first two recipients, according to the Department of Veterans Affairs, of astate-of-the-art robotic arm that uses computers, sensors and motors to give back to them the simple, but essential, functions they had lost in their youth. The arm — known as Life Under Kinetic Evolution or LUKE — is the result of an eight-year research project by the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (known as Darpa) and private companies. Unlike current prosthetics available for upper limb amputees, the LUKE arm allows for smooth and simultaneous movement using motors at the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand to flex and turn or lift and grip.

Johnson, S. S., and E. Mansfield. 2014. Prosthetic training: Upper limb.  25(1):133-151.

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The proposed e-book aims at illustrating the most significant milestones provided by the scientists in this new prosthetic research era and also sheds lights on new trends, future developments and on the most challenging issues of the fascinating field of rehabilitation robotics. In Chapter 1 the most recent technology innovations are reviewed with the analysis on the critical issues involved in the design of upper limb systems. Chapter 2 focuses on clinical applications for the treatment of partial hand amputations with the new prosthetic solutions commercially available (Pro-Digits by Touch Bionics, SC). Chapter 3 presents the basic principles at the basis of the neural control of a prosthetic device, with the results of an in vivo test performed in Rome (Italy). In Chapter 4 the milestones of prosthetics outcome measurements are presented, aiming at defining standardized protocols to evaluate prosthetic systems and prosthesis wearers. Functional and psychological evaluations are matters of Chapter 5, where the analysis of a patient wearing a new multi-grip commercial hand (Michelangelo by Otto Bock, GE). The last two chapters of the e-book are devoted to the presentation of technologies that can have a major impact in the next future for the upper limb prosthetic filed. In Chapter 6 the design guidelines for the development of anthropomorphic robotic hands are outlined, with the presentation of a bio-inspired hand with soft pads and compliant joints. Chapter 7 finally presents the framework for the development of virtual reality systems useful for the simulation of upper limb functioning, both for the development of new high-level prostheses and the training of patients in the first stages of their prosthetic rehabilitation.