Figure 34. Energy pathways in photosynthesis.
What are dark and light reactions in photosynthesis?
The beauty of butterflies makes their culture particularly charming. Do not believe you will immediately have these beautiful insects, in fact for most of the time you will have to raise caterpillars and preserve pupae. Only at the end will you have butterflies. To culture these pretty insects, you first have to read texts about lepidoptera and practice in the field. In this way you will learn how to find butterfly eggs, to raise caterpillars and to keep pupae, waiting for the butterfly to emerge. Usually, butterflies prefer one or a few kinds of plants called hostplants. Caterpillars feed only on these plants and it is only on these that the adult female lays her eggs. So, in order to find the eggs of a given species of butterfly it is necessary to know which are its hostplants and when they lay eggs.
You should breed caterpillars in well ventilated cages. They have to be closed with mosquito net to avoid predators (figure 14). In fact, many bugs lay their eggs in the body of caterpillars. You have to feed your caterpillars with fresh leafy branches of the host plant. To do this you can pot these plants and insert them in the cage, or you can insert the cage over a branch without cutting it from the plant. If this is not possible, cover a branch of the plant with a cloth bag including the caterpillars. Cure the pupae according the suggestions in the books. When butterflies emerge from their cocoon, free them where you have collected the eggs. If you want to keep some adults to admire them, put them in cages like the one of the figure 14 and nourish them with mixtures of water and honey. Often, the caterpillars you find in nature are victim of bugs which lay their eggs on the caterpillar. In this case, there are little dark spots on the caterpillar skin. You can raise these caterpillars to study their parasites.
Butterfly Gardening and Conservation
The Richmond Birdwing Butterfly Conservation Project
Caterpillar Hostplants Database
Unsure About Butterfly Releases?
Internet keywords: butterfly breeding culture.
drives the dark reactions of photosynthesis
An ecosystem consists of the whole community of living organisms (biocenosis), the abioticcomponent of a certain environment (biotope) and their relationships.
The relationships essentially consist in a flux of substances which pass from thenon-living components to living ones and in a flux of energy which passes from thephotosynthetic organisms (plants) to the herbivorous animals, then to carnivores. Thewastes and the dead organisms are then decomposed by the micro-organisms which brake downthe substances back to simple components, in a full cycle.
1 - With a shovel in a field or in a wood, dig a square hole of about half a meter (1 1/2feet) square and about 40 cm (18") deep. Describe the non-living components of thesoil and all forms of life you find: roots, earthworms, snails, centipedes, spiders,crickets, etc. To complete the description of the ecosystem of the soil, look forinformation on the role of each of these organisms and the relationships with the otherforms of life of this environment.
2 - In similar way you have studied the soil ecosystem, you can analyze other ecosystemssuch as the ones in a forest, pond, shore, or desert.
G. and L. Durrell (2) can be useful, or there are many other books on this matter.
An Illustration of a Soil Ecosystem
Protocols for a Soil Ecosystem Approach for Characterizing Soil Biodiversity
Internet keywords: soil ecosystem.