Patent CA2595271A1 - Dental prosthesis - Google Patents
Dental Prosthesis - Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade …
No clear clinical effects on oral mucosa were found in 72 patients who wore partial dentures of palladium-copper-indium alloys (Pd73, Cu14, In5) for a period of up to 48 months (Augthun & Spiekermann, 1994), although this alloy showed a relatively low corrosion resistance (see chapter 5). Fourteen patients reported a metallic taste or "battery feeling" in the mouth. Another study noted slight or moderate reactions of the mucosa adjacent to prostheses consisting of palladium-type alloys in less than 20% of the 39 patients examined (Mjör & Christensen, 1993).
DENTAL PROSTHESIS | Università degli Studi di Sassari
There is a report (Daunderer, 1994) on a dental patient showing a palladium concentration of 1.8 µg/litre in saliva and of 357 µg/kg in a tooth (no further details given). Another patient had palladium concentrations of 0.9 and 1.2 µg/litre in saliva and serum, respectively (Daunderer, 1993). A palladium concentration of 3400 µg/kg has been reported in a bladder papilloma sectioned from a patient with palladium-containing dental prostheses (Daunderer, 1993). No further details were given.
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Occasional breakage is inevitable due to various mishaps that may befallthe prosthesis, thereby causing loss of retention, instability and discomfortto the patient.
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It is known that clasp dental prostheses, held on teeth, which arenot covered by artificial crowns, require careful hygienic examination toprevent teeth from caries in areas of base attachment from the proximal side ofthe tooth.
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Scrapped automobile catalysts contributed 5.4 tonnes to the world palladium demand of 72 tonnes in the automotive sector in 1998 (Cowley, 1999). According to Cowley (1999), 5.12 tonnes of palladium were recovered from old automobile catalysts in North America and Japan in 1998. The ultimate fate of many automobile catalysts may be disposal in waste dumps. Recycling methods comprise pyrometallurgical refining techniques that are similar to those described previously in section 188.8.131.52 (e.g., Degussa, 1997). The quantities recovered from scrapped electrical components (electrical contacts) are larger, but again no figures exist (Cowley, 1997). It is expected that some of the utilized palladium ends up in wastes or incineration ashes. It can also be expected that dental alloys are completely recycled if dental prostheses have to be replaced.