Effect of tryptophan on polyribosomes and protein synthesis in liver.
The inhibition of liver ribonucleic acid synthesis by ethionine.
In well-controlled diabetes, large amounts of protein have the potential to contribute to glucose production, minimally increase blood glucose levels, and require additional small amounts of insulin.
Defects in Protein Synthesis Two of the liver's cell types, ..
Gluconeogenesis also is increased, and hepatic extraction of alanine, a key amino acid gluconeogenic precursor, is accelerated.19 Excessive rates of hepatic glucose production, proteolysis, and amino acid oxidation in type 1 diabetes are all reduced by insulin administration,82 but proteolysis and amino acid oxidation are more resistant to the suppressive effects of insulin.83 Normalization of protein metabolic rates may, therefore, require long-term tight metabolic control.84 Today, with improved glycemic management in type 1 diabetes, a more normal protein synthesis, breakdown, and oxidation should occur.
Liver disease and protein needs. — Johns Hopkins …
With insulin deficiency, the oxidation of branched chain amino acids in muscle and uptake of alanine (the principle glycogenic amino acid) by the liver is accelerated, resulting in increased gluconeogenesis and augmented protein catabolism.18 The accompanying rise in glucose levels is most likely due to an increased conversion of ingested protein into glucose and to a decreased glucose removal rate.
Protein deficiency is often associated with liver disease
The renal impairment may be due to intrinsic renallesions, decreased perfusion of the kidney, or obstruction of the lowerurinary tract.Nephrotoxic drugs and other chemicals include:Deranged metabolic processes may cause increases in serum creatinine, asin acromegaly and hyperthyroidism, but dietary protein intake does notinfluence the serum level (as opposed to the situation with BUN).
Studies of Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism in the …
The majority of protein is digested, and the amino acids not used for gut fuel are metabolized in the intestinal mucosal cells and transported by the portal vein to the liver for protein synthesis or gluconeogenesis.12 In the liver, nonessential amino acids are largely deaminated, and the amino group (nitrogen) removed is converted into urea for excretion in the urine.13 It has been shown that in subjects without and with mild type 2 diabetes, ~5070% of a 50-g protein meal is accounted for over an 8-hour period by deamination in the liver and intestine and synthesis to urea.14 It has been assumed that the remaining carbon skeletons from the nonessential amino acids are available for glucose synthesis, which would then enter into the general circulation.