T1 - Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis type II

Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), esterification products of fatty acid and ethanol, have been implicated as mediators of ethanol-induced organ damage. To understand the molecular and cellular events in FAEE synthesis and secretion, we developed a system in which HepG2 cells synthesize and release FAEE into the culture medium upon incubation with ethanol. The synthesis of FAEE was observed within 5 min of the addition of ethanol, with a plateau for FAEE synthesis after 2 h of incubation. It was also observed that FAEE are synthesized by both a microsomal FAEE synthase, which preferentially uses fatty acyl-CoA as a substrate, and a cytosolic FAEE synthase, which accepts both unesterified fatty acid and fatty acyl-CoA as substrates with a slight preference for fatty acyl-CoA. Although the kinetics of cellular FAEE synthesis await further characterization, the intracellular fatty acid substrate appears to be derived principally from glycerolipids and other esters. FAEE were released into the culture medium by a mechanism independent of the vesicular transport pathway. Lipoprotein particles and albumin were found to be carriers of FAEE after FAEE secretion from the cell.

An Efficient Asymmetric Synthesis of β-(Fluoroalkyl) β-Amino Acids

Fatty acid synthesis - Wikipedia

Synthesis of saturated fatty acids via Fatty Acid Synthase II in E ..

N2 - Eukaryotes harbor a highly conserved mitochondrial pathway for fatty acid synthesis (FAS), which is completely independent of the eukaryotic cytosolic FAS apparatus. The activities of the mitochondrial FAS system are catalyzed by soluble enzymes, and the pathway thus resembles its prokaryotic counterparts. Except for octanoic acid,whichis the direct precursor for lipoic acid synthesis, other end products and functions of the mitochondrial FAS pathway are still largely enigmatic. In addition to low cellular levels of lipoic acid, disruption of genes encoding mitochondrial FAS enzymes in yeast results in a respiratory-deficient phenotype and small rudimentary mitochondria. Recently, two distinct links between mitochondrial FAS and RNA processing have been discovered in vertebrates and yeast, respectively. In vertebrates, the mitochondrial 3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase and the RPP14 subunit of RNase P are encoded by the same bicistronic transcript in an evolutionarily conserved arrangement that is unusual for eukaryotes. In yeast, defects in mitochondrial FAS result in inefficient RNase P cleavage in the organelle. The intersection of mitochondrial FAS and RNA metabolism in both systems provides a novel mechanism for the coordination of intermediary metabolism in eukaryotic cells.

CHAPTER 6 – Fatty acid synthesis in eukaryotes

AB - Eukaryotes harbor a highly conserved mitochondrial pathway for fatty acid synthesis (FAS), which is completely independent of the eukaryotic cytosolic FAS apparatus. The activities of the mitochondrial FAS system are catalyzed by soluble enzymes, and the pathway thus resembles its prokaryotic counterparts. Except for octanoic acid,whichis the direct precursor for lipoic acid synthesis, other end products and functions of the mitochondrial FAS pathway are still largely enigmatic. In addition to low cellular levels of lipoic acid, disruption of genes encoding mitochondrial FAS enzymes in yeast results in a respiratory-deficient phenotype and small rudimentary mitochondria. Recently, two distinct links between mitochondrial FAS and RNA processing have been discovered in vertebrates and yeast, respectively. In vertebrates, the mitochondrial 3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase and the RPP14 subunit of RNase P are encoded by the same bicistronic transcript in an evolutionarily conserved arrangement that is unusual for eukaryotes. In yeast, defects in mitochondrial FAS result in inefficient RNase P cleavage in the organelle. The intersection of mitochondrial FAS and RNA metabolism in both systems provides a novel mechanism for the coordination of intermediary metabolism in eukaryotic cells.

Fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA ..
Lecture slides on fatty acid synthesis for MBBS I as well as other undergraduate students.

Fatty Acid Synthesis | Citric Acid Cycle | Biosynthesis

AB - Acetate derived from ethanol oxidation is activated by cytosolic and mitochondrial acetyl-CoA synthetases before contributing to the extra-mitochondrial processes of fatty acid and 3-beta-hydroxysterol synthesis. Mitochondrially-generated acetyl-CoA is transferred to the cytosol via citrate and ATP-citrate lyase; this transfer is blocked by (-)-hydroxycitrate. Rats were injected IV with 3.3 mmol/kg of [2-3H,2-14C] acetate and IP with either 0.5 mmol/kg hydroxycitrate or saline. After one hour, the rats were killed and the incorporation of label was measured in liver fatty acids and 3-beta-hydroxysterols. The 3H/14C ratio was increased by 12 and 13% in the fatty acids and 3-beta-hydroxysterols of the hydroxycitrate-treated group. The lower ratio in the fatty acids and 3-beta-hydroxysterols derived from mitochondrially-generated acetyl-CoA is ascribed to a loss of 3H in the citrate synthase reaction. The data showed that (1) fatty acids and 3-beta-hydroxysterols syntheses use the same pool of cytosolic acetyl-CoA; and (2) in the absence of an isotope effect in the citrate synthase reaction, mitochondrially-generated acetyl-CoA contributes about 36% to lipogenesis from acetate.

Calcitonin and hepatic fatty acid synthesis: ..

Plant Fatty Acid Synthesis - AOCS Lipid Library

AB - Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), esterification products of fatty acid and ethanol, have been implicated as mediators of ethanol-induced organ damage. To understand the molecular and cellular events in FAEE synthesis and secretion, we developed a system in which HepG2 cells synthesize and release FAEE into the culture medium upon incubation with ethanol. The synthesis of FAEE was observed within 5 min of the addition of ethanol, with a plateau for FAEE synthesis after 2 h of incubation. It was also observed that FAEE are synthesized by both a microsomal FAEE synthase, which preferentially uses fatty acyl-CoA as a substrate, and a cytosolic FAEE synthase, which accepts both unesterified fatty acid and fatty acyl-CoA as substrates with a slight preference for fatty acyl-CoA. Although the kinetics of cellular FAEE synthesis await further characterization, the intracellular fatty acid substrate appears to be derived principally from glycerolipids and other esters. FAEE were released into the culture medium by a mechanism independent of the vesicular transport pathway. Lipoprotein particles and albumin were found to be carriers of FAEE after FAEE secretion from the cell.

Regulation of Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Synthesis

REGULATION OF CHOLESTEROL AND FATTY ACID SYNTHESIS

References: Q&A Introduction Reeson Wang
Mathilde Cheang
Gavin Chan β FATTY ACID SYNTHESIS Synthesis Degration -SH group of ACPs (acyl carrier proteins) Coenzyme NADP+/NADPH NAD+/NADH Cytosol Mitochondria -SH group of CoA Occur at Intermediates linked to Various uses in the human body that range from energy production to controlling hormones
Biochemistry, 4th edition, Reginald H.