Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids .

Selenocysteine occurs in the peptide backbone of several selenoenzymes. The mechanism, of selenocysteine incorporation has not been well characterized. The incorporation of selenocysteine into protein in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) was studied at high levels of selenocysteine. [75Se]Selenocysteine incorporation was inhibited by cycloheximide and by nuclease treatment. Random RNA copolymers were tested for protein synthesis activity in the messenger RNA-dependent RRL system. Of the active polymers, poly CIU and GU most strongly stimulated the incorporation of selenocysteine. In a series of four polymers with different ratios of U to G, incorporation of selenocysteine and cysteine increased with increasing percentages of U, suggesting that selenocysteine and cysteine responded to the same codon, presumably UGU. Of the 20 protein amino acids, only cysteine and cystine competed with selenocysteine incorporation. Selenocysteine was charged to cysteine-accepting tRNA in RRL. These results show that at supraphysiological concentrations selenocysteine can substitute for cysteine in RRL protein synthesis. Misincorporation of selenocysteine could be important when animal tissues contain high levels of selenium.

methionine is not synthesized de novo in humans and other animals, ..

Glutathione Metabolism and Its Implications for Health

Glutathione Metabolism and Its Implications for Health 1

N2 - Selenocysteine occurs in the peptide backbone of several selenoenzymes. The mechanism, of selenocysteine incorporation has not been well characterized. The incorporation of selenocysteine into protein in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) was studied at high levels of selenocysteine. [75Se]Selenocysteine incorporation was inhibited by cycloheximide and by nuclease treatment. Random RNA copolymers were tested for protein synthesis activity in the messenger RNA-dependent RRL system. Of the active polymers, poly CIU and GU most strongly stimulated the incorporation of selenocysteine. In a series of four polymers with different ratios of U to G, incorporation of selenocysteine and cysteine increased with increasing percentages of U, suggesting that selenocysteine and cysteine responded to the same codon, presumably UGU. Of the 20 protein amino acids, only cysteine and cystine competed with selenocysteine incorporation. Selenocysteine was charged to cysteine-accepting tRNA in RRL. These results show that at supraphysiological concentrations selenocysteine can substitute for cysteine in RRL protein synthesis. Misincorporation of selenocysteine could be important when animal tissues contain high levels of selenium.

The synthesis of GSH from glutamate, cysteine, ..

AB - Selenocysteine occurs in the peptide backbone of several selenoenzymes. The mechanism, of selenocysteine incorporation has not been well characterized. The incorporation of selenocysteine into protein in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) was studied at high levels of selenocysteine. [75Se]Selenocysteine incorporation was inhibited by cycloheximide and by nuclease treatment. Random RNA copolymers were tested for protein synthesis activity in the messenger RNA-dependent RRL system. Of the active polymers, poly CIU and GU most strongly stimulated the incorporation of selenocysteine. In a series of four polymers with different ratios of U to G, incorporation of selenocysteine and cysteine increased with increasing percentages of U, suggesting that selenocysteine and cysteine responded to the same codon, presumably UGU. Of the 20 protein amino acids, only cysteine and cystine competed with selenocysteine incorporation. Selenocysteine was charged to cysteine-accepting tRNA in RRL. These results show that at supraphysiological concentrations selenocysteine can substitute for cysteine in RRL protein synthesis. Misincorporation of selenocysteine could be important when animal tissues contain high levels of selenium.

Glutathione synthesis and utilization in animals.
In biosynthesis of cysteine and methionine, where does the sulfur ..

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05/12/2003 · Glutathione Metabolism and Its Implications for ..

Dietary requirements of synthesizable amino acids by ..

14/11/2015 · Amino Acid Nutrition in Animals: Protein Synthesis and Beyond

synthesis of NEAA in animals critically depends on the.