The acquisition/learning hypothesis 2.

The Uncertainty Hypothesis from Herzog’s article holds that the author indulges himself in such gamesmanship to convey the message that closure is non existent, and that there is only uncertainty which constantly defers the ending of everything.

The natural order hypothesis 4.

This hypothesis by Stephen Krashen is one of the most controversial ...

I will use Stephen Krashen’s Creative Construction ..

The rationale for this hypothesis was drawn from behaviorist (stimulus-response) psychology, which defined "transfer" as the automatic, uncontrolled and subconscious use of past learned behaviors in an attempt to produce new responses.

According to Krashen (1985, 1987, 1988) Input Hypothesis has ..

The two-Gospel hypothesis provides an effective response regarding these literary and historical similarities with the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke through a balanced approach utilizing both internal and external resources to address the long standing debate regarding the synoptic problem....

"United State" - is an example of transfer from L1 where plural are not marked by adding "s".

Dulay and Burt‟s Creative Construction Theory ..

Quality of second language interaction. Although a large quantity of the target language was produced, second language interaction during game play did not seem to pose a development of accuracy and complexity of learners’ produced discourse, probably due to the demands for simultaneous communication flow. However, second language interaction during game play did, indeed, encourage a variety of discourse functions, which is summarized in Table 6. The oral-based chat transcripts showed more use of greetings than did the text-based chat transcripts (16 vs. 8 and 24 vs. 6 in sessions 1 and 3 respectively). Especially in the third session of oral interaction where students seemed to have stronger interpersonal relationships, greetings were found to be more formulaic and interaction contained more turns and small talk, while students engaged in written interaction spent less time greeting each other and initiated their conversations directly (See Example 1).

Creative Construction Model and

The connection between the related concepts of logical possibility, causal possibility and conceivability are among the basics which create the foundation for determining the creation and interpretation of a hypothesis that is being analyzed within a thought experiment.

Slide 18: Krashen proposed five hypotheses for second language acquisition.

Criticisms of krashen’s five hypotheses (full) ..

Three new quests (i.e. the missions that players are assigned to accomplish in order to get items and progress throughout the game) were specifically designed in agreement with the learning activities and objectives of the three lessons with which digital games activities were integrated, as well as students’ English proficiency at a university level. The development of new quests was in alignment with particular lessons in ways that the quests purposefully contained scenarios, language, and lexical items related to what students previously studied in class. Table 2 shows an example of how learning objectives were mapped to activities in Ragnarok Online. Figure 2 shows an example of a screenshot of the modified quest for this study. The tasks in the quests constantly gave students instantaneous feedback and gradually increased in difficulty as the game progressed to encourage more communication. Each quest was designed to fit into a 90-minute teaching session in a computer-assisted language learning lab. Each quest itself lasted approximately 40 minutes but the remaining class time was devoted to the integration of supporting activities such as preparation and debriefing. Only data for quests 1 and 3 was recorded and is reported here.

It indicates the learner is creatively constructing a language system intermediate to L1 and L2.

Hypothesis testing Creative Construction - novel utterances

I approach this question through an in-depth analysis of a typical experiment for clinical depression involving the monoamine hypothesis, drug action, and placebos.

Krashen, S. (1985). The Input Hypothesis: Issues and implications. London: Longman.

systematic/rule-governed acquisition, and creative construction

As comprehension was required to proceed to other game tasks, a large number of confirmation checks were present throughout the oral interaction (18 in session 1 and 17 in session 3), while none were present in the written communication. However, self-corrections were more frequent in the written interaction than in the oral interaction (17 vs. 6 and 18 vs. 11 in sessions 1 and 3 respectively). The fact that participants engaged in the former medium could read on-screen messages and that they had time to think and prepare would easily allow them to reflect and correct their messages before and after posting. Example 3 gives an example of confirmation checks taking place during voice- and text-based chat.