KW - Protein synthesis translation

The overall regulation of r-protein synthesis inresponse to changes in growth conditions is primarily mediated bychanges in the rate of transcription of the r-protein genes8.

Bommer, U and Stahl, J (2005) Ribosomal proteins in eukaryotes. eLS.

HHMI scientists and their colleagues discover a new mechanism of protein synthesis.

Control of Ribosomal Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotic …

For the first time we report about the presence of genes in human RBCs encoding initiation, activation and regulation of transcription and translation (for instance RNA polymerises I,II,III, zinc/PHD finger- DNA-binding proteins, cysteinyl, lysyl-tRNA synthetase), important RNA-stabilising factor - poly(A) binding protein, anti-apoptotic proteins (for instance beclin 1, reticulon 4, BCL2, IAP) together with genes for RNA degradation (for example ribonuclease T2) as well as genes encoding typical apoptotic proteins such as cyclooxygenase, apoptotic protease activating factor, caspase 8. Other authors were able to show a protein synthesis in human platelets by megakaryocyte-derived mRNAs . The finding of RNA in anucleate cells like erythrocytes support the idea of nucleus independent protein synthesis and supports data about possible mechanism of globin m-RNA stability in human RBCs.

Control of ribosomal protein gene expression - …

Inside every cell, ribosomes read mRNA sequences and hook together protein building blocks called amino acids in the order specified by the code: Groups of three nucleotides in mRNA code for each of 20 amino acids.

Cellular site of synthesis of ribosomal proteins in yeast

Gazda HT, Sheen MR, Vlachos A et al. (2008) Ribosomal protein L5 and L11 mutations are associated with cleft palate and abnormal thumb in Diamond‐Blackfan anemia. American Journal of Human Genetics 83: 769–780.

Genetic Control of Protein Synthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

Hagner PR, Mazan‐Mamczarz K, Dai B et al. (2011) Ribosomal protein S6 is highly expressed in non‐Hodgkin lymphoma and associates with mRNA containing a 5′ terminal oligopyrimidine tract. Oncogene 30: 1531–1541.

Mechanisms of Protein Synthesis by the Ribosome

Gazda HT, Grabowska A, Merida‐Long LB et al. (2006) Ribosomal protein S24 gene is mutated in Diamond‐Blackfan anemia. American Journal of Human Genetics 79: 1110–1118.

Control of ribosomal protein synthesis during wheat …

It was found 529 genes for cellular metabolism (among them 96 genes for protein biosynthesis), 228 genes for signal transduction (among them 112 genes for intracellular signalling cascade), 104 genes for development, 107 genes for immune response, 62 genes for protein localization, and only 53 genes for programmed cell death as well as 5 genes for autophagy. The function of remainder (160 genes) is yet unknown.


Human erythrocyte lack a nucleus and are thought to be void of protein synthesis. In contrast, we have found that total RNA from human RBCs resembles typical eukaryotic RNA with 5S-80S sedimentation distributions, and contains standard 28S- and18S-rRNA bands (Fig. ). Total RNA from nucleated avian erythrocytes was discovered to have from 5 to 60 S sedimentation rates . Identification of each unique RNA-class within the RNA pool as well as genetic mechanisms from both nucleated and anucleate erythrocytes awaits future studies.


Ørom UA, Nielsen FC and Lund AH (2008) MicroRNA‐10a binds the 5′ UTR of ribosomal protein mRNAs and enhances their translation. Molecular Cell 30: 460–471.