section 12 3 rna and protein synthesis worksheet answer key ..
Transcription, Translation and Genetic Code
The path of the electrons is shown with the green dotted line. ATP synthetase (red) has two components: a proton channel (allowing diffusion of protons down a concentration gradient, from the intermembrane space to the matrix), and a catalytic component to catalyze the formation of ATP.
The rRNA and tRNA both function in protein synthesis
Introducing nucleic acids into mammalian cells is a crucial step to elucidate biochemicalpathways, and to modify gene expression and cellular development in immortalized cells,primary cells, and stem cells. Current transfection technologies are time consuming and limitedby the size of genetic cargo, the inefficient introduction of test molecules into large populationsof target cells, and the cytotoxicity of the techniques. We have developed a novel method ofintroducing genes and biomolecules into tens of thousands of mammalian cells through an arrayof aligned hollow carbon nanotubes, manufactured by template-based nanofabrication processes,to achieve rapid high efficiency transfer with low cytotoxicity. The utilization of carbonnanotube arrays for gene transfection overcomes molecular weight limits of current technologiesand can be adapted to deliver drugs or proteins in addition to nucleic acids. The template-basednanofabrication processes used to manufacture carbon nanotube-based arrays and recent genetransfection applications will be described, concluding with recent findings suggesting that thelength of the exposed nanotubes has an effect on transfection efficiencies.