model of interspecific competition for asingle limited resource

The other critical innovation was the modern steam engine, which was intimately related to coal. Burgeoning coal mines quickly exhausted deposits above the water table and began digging deeply into the earth, and water in the mines became a great problem. Not only were floods killing miners, but standing water made mines inoperable. Romans pumped water from their mines (). So did British mining operations, and around 1710, combined the ideas of a and an to make the , to pump water from coal mines. In a parallel case of using coal for smelting, the coal-fired Newcomen engine was . It was the first of its kind, primitive compared to later engines, and its spread was gradual. . He eventually invented an improved version with a that was . The steam engine that powered the Industrial Revolution was thus born, although, as with coal, its spread was gradual, and wind and water power were competitive with coal for nearly a century. The hydrocarbon-fueled steam engine was the key to the Industrial Revolution, in which the energy of ancient sunlight was exploited to generate previously unimaginable power. A steam locomotive of 1850 roaring through the English countryside would have been inconceivable to an English peasant of 1500. From a to to to less than five hundred years, the duration of each Epochal Event continued to shrink as levels of energy use increased dramatically and with each event.

The business world has grown both in size and competition.

As an example, consider two competitive stocks (A, and B).

Equivalent to pollen tube competitionin plants and a type of .

Bonobos are the only non-human African great ape exception to infanticide, and are also the only great ape species that does not sexually coerce females, humans included. The reason seems to be the social organization that arose from a plentiful food supply that allowed for larger groups in which females males actively reduced male violence. Many behaviors within and between bonobo bands are unknown with chimps. A male bonobo will remain with his mother for her entire life, and male bonobos do not vie for dominance. Instead, bonobos have a sexuality that no other animal on Earth has remotely approached. They settle nearly everything with sex. Female on female is common, particularly when bands meet, but , with the sole exception of mothers and sons, as the aversion to inbreeding is rooted deeply in animals and is also responsible for the human incest taboo. Bonobo societies are and seem to live by the slogan, “Make love, not war.” But it started with their economy, when their primary and dominant competitor moved away. In recent studies, the only bonobo sexual coercive acts observed are females abusing males, which is also rare. A likely influence on ending infanticide is that female bonobos, like humans, conceal their ovulation, so males are not cued to compete to be the father. Also, since virtually all bonobos have sex all the time, there is no way for bonobos to determine paternity.

the competitive exclusion principle, ..

Habilines and australopithecines coexisted, and the went extinct about 2.0 mya. Robust australopiths survived to about 1.2 mya (, ), and habilines , so they overlapped the tenure of a species about which there is no doubt of its genus: , which first appeared about 2.0-1.8 mya, and the first fossils are dated to 1.8 mya. is the first human-line species whose members could pass for humans on a city street, if they dressed up and wore minor prosthetics on their heads and faces. had a protruding nose and was probably relatively hairless, the first of the human line to be that way. That was probably related to shedding heat in new, hot environments, as well as cooling its large brain (molecular data with head and body lice supports arguments that the human line became relatively hairless even before australopiths). There are great controversies about that overlap among those three distinct lines that might all have ancestral relationships. Oldowan culture was a multi-species one. There is plenty of speculation that the rise of and its successors caused the extinction of other hominids, driving them to extinction by competition, predation, warfare, or some combination of them. What is certain is that “competing” protohumans went extinct after coexisting with the human line for hundreds of thousands of years. The suspicion that evolving humans drove their cousins to extinction becomes more common as the timeline progresses toward today.

This well-documented form of sperm competition is bestknown in Drosophila.
See Birkhead's book  (2000) for a detailedstudy of sperm competition in nature.

competitive exclusion | All you need is Biology

The invasion of North America from Asia (with a little migration from North America to Asia), while important, was not as dramatic as what happened in Africa a few million years later. About 24 mya, Africa and the attached Arabian Peninsula began colliding with Eurasia. The once-vast Tethys Ocean had finally been reduced to a strait between the continents, and one of Earth’s most dramatic mammalian migrations began. By about 18 mya, proboscidean had migrated from Africa and they reached North America by 16.5 mya. An left Africa but stayed in Asia. As with the North American interchange with Asia, however, the greater change came the other way. Rodents, deer, cattle, antelope, pigs, rhinos, giraffes, dogs (including the ), and cats came over, along with small insectivores and shrews. Most of the iconic large fauna of today’s African plains originated from elsewhere, particularly Asia. Asian animals invaded and dominated Europe and Africa, and became abundant in North America. In general, Asia had more diverse biomes and was the largest continent, so it developed the most competitive animals. That principle, which Darwin remarked on, became very evident when the British invaded Australia in the 18th century: imports such as rabbits and foxes quickly prevailed, and . The most important Miocene development for humans was African primate development, but that is a subject for a later chapter.

*  *  * Cascade effect *  * Competitive exclusion principle *  * Copiotrophs * Dominance *  *  *  *  * f-ratio *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

in a competitive process for the ..

One of the primary ways niche-sharing species can coexist is thecompetition-colonization trade-off . In other words, species that arebetter competitors will be specialists, whereas species that arebetter colonizers are more likely to be generalists. Host-parasitemodels are effective ways of examining this relationship, using hosttransfer events. There seem to be two places where the ability tocolonize differs in ecologically closely related species. In featherlice, Bush and Clayton provided some verification of this by showingtwo closely related genera of lice are nearly equal in their abilityto colonize new host pigeons once transferred. Harbison continuedthis line of thought by investigating whether the two genera differedin their ability to transfer. This research focused primarily ondetermining how colonization occurs and why wing lice are bettercolonizers than body lice. Vertical transfer is the most commonoccurrence, between parent and offspring, and is much-studied and wellunderstood. Horizontal transfer is difficult to measure, but in liceseems to occur via phoresis or the "hitchhiking" of one species onanother. Harbison found that body lice are less adept at phoresis andexcel competitively, whereas wing lice excel in colonization.

In Mammals, female is the heterogametic sex (XY)and thus male-to-male competition is the predominant form of sexual selection.

Competitive exclusion and hominid paleoecology: …

Although has a long history in the human line, permanent sedentism began by harvesting nuts and seeds. In the , in a swath of land that includes today’s Israel and Syria, about 13.5 kya the culture (c. 18 kya to 12.5 kya) made acorns and pistachios a dietary staple. Mortars and pestles were in the Kebaran toolkit for processing acorns, which must be pounded into a paste and soaked to leach out , and that work fell exclusively to women. Domestication often meant artificial selection to reduce/remove plant features that protected against grazing. That made the plants more palatable to humans, but it also made them more attractive to other animals. What all major crops developed by humans had in common was the domesticated plants' existence in tropical or warm temperate regions with a dry season. Those plants developed strategies to survive the dry season and stored energy in seeds, roots, and legumes. People learned to exploit that stored energy and they domesticated those plants. Many of today’s domestic crops could not survive in the wild, and protecting crops from other animals and competition from other plants has been an integral part of the Domestication Revolution. Similarly, many domestic animals would have a difficult time surviving in the wild, including people.