Start studying Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic protein synthesis
Compare protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes - 8112497
This Concept Map, created with IHMC CmapTools, has information related to: Answers_eukaryotic cell, tubulin microtubules, actin microfilaments, polypeptide intermediate filaments functions give shape to cells lacking a cell wall, cytoskeleton consists of tubulin microtubules, actin microfilaments, polypeptide intermediate filaments, cell wall lack a cell wall protozoa, animal cells, Eukaryotic Cell structures and organelles vacuoles and vesicles, active transport examples endocytosis and exocytosis, chloroplasts description surrounded by two membranes; inner membrane forms interconnected stacks of disk-like sacs called thylakoids, contains paired, linear chromosomes, has a nuclear membrane, has nucleoli function the genetic material of the cell composed of genes that code for protein synthesis, the endomembrane system components nucleus, determines what goes in and out of the bacterium powered by a concentration gradient; does not require metabolic energy facilitated diffusion, Eukaryotic Cell structures and organelles the endomembrane system, Eukaryotic Cell structures and organelles proteasomes, ribosomes function workbench for protein synthesis, Eukaryotic Cell structures and organelles ribosomes, determines what goes in and out of the bacterium powered by a concentration gradient; does not require metabolic energy passive diffusion, Golgi complex description 3-20 flattened and stacked sac-like structures, cell wall have a cell wall algae, plants cells, fungi, long; few in number function motility, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) description parallel membranous tubules and flattened sacs surrounding the nucleus and runs throughout the cytoplasm, Eukaryotic Cell structures and organelles flagella, algae, plants cells, fungi function resists osmotic lysis
DIFFERENCES IN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES
Ribosomes, the essential cellular organelles carrying out protein synthesis, have a basic design that is fundamentally conserved in all three kingdoms of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya). Nevertheless, there are ribosomal features specific of each kingdom. Archaeal ribosomes have a size and composition similar to those of their bacterial counterparts: they contain three ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules, 16S, 23S and 5S RNA and 50–70 proteins depending on the species. However, the primary structures of both archaeal ribosomal RNA and r‐proteins are closer to those of eukaryotes. As many Archaea have adapted to function under conditions of extreme salt or temperature, their ribosomal components are highly resistant to such adverse conditions, and the overall ribosome structure often has an higher rigidity than that of mesophilic microorganisms. This makes archaeal ribosomes optimally suited for crystallographic studies, and in fact, high‐resolution three‐dimensional structures have been obtained with ribosomal crystals from halophilic and thermophilic Archaea. These studies pioneered the resolution at the atomic level of ribosome architecture, a feat that won the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Ada Yonath, Thomas Steitz and Venki Ramakrishnan.