Basic information about what DNA is

This article by Eugene Lukhtanov of ELITechGroup Molecular Diagnostics introduces the tripeptide of dihydropyrroloindole-carboxylate (CDPI3), which is a minor groove binding (MGB) moiety derived from the natural product CC-1065 and exhibits strong DNA binding properties. Synthetic oligonucleotides with covalently-attached CDPI3 moieties have enhanced DNA affinity and have improved the hybridization properties of sequence-specific DNA probes. Short CDPI3-oligonucleotides hybridize with single-stranded DNA to give more stable DNA duplexes than unmodified oligonucleotides of similar length. The author describes the general properties of CDPI3 MGB-oligonucleotide conjugates in detail, along with some specific applications:

Synthesis of chemically modified DNA

Formation of N-branched oligonucleotides as by-products in solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis

Synthesis of chemically modified DNA

A surprisingly large part of chemistry has to do with isolating one component from a mixture. This may occur at any number of stages in a manufacturing process, including the very critical steps involved in removing toxic, odiferous, or otherwise undesirable by-products from a waste stream. But even in the research lab, a considerable amount of effort is often devoted to separating the desired substance from the many components of a reaction mixture, or in separating a component from a complex mixture (for example, a drug metabolite from a urine sample) prior to measuring the amount present.

Chemical synthesis of DNA By Prabhu Thirusangu

Virtually all chemical changes involve the uptake or release of energy, usually in the form of heat. It turns out that these energy changes, which are the province of , serve as a powerful means of predicting whether or not a given reaction can proceed, and to what extent. Moreover, all we need in order to make this prediction is information about the energetic properties of the reactants and products; there is no need to study the reaction itself. Because these are bulk properties of matter, chemical thermodynamics is entirely macroscopic in its outlook.

DNA - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Phosphoramidites that allow the generation of oligonucleotides containing site-specific lesions have been vital components for studying the mechanism of DNA repair. New DNA lesions are still being discovered and the study of their biological consequences will require their site-specific incorporation into oligonucleotides. The authors conclude that the increased availability of phosphoramidites for the synthesis of lesion-containing oligonucleotides should facilitate many future discoveries in the broad area of DNA damage and repair.

Adenosine triphosphate - Simple English Wikipedia, …

The authors note that the detailed studies of the molecular mechanisms of DNA repair pathways were made possible by using site-specifically modified oligonucleotides and that the availability of phosphoramidites to synthesize oligonucleotides with DNA lesions has contributed to the field. They illustrate the article using primarily structural studies in the following examples:

Chemical structure of RNA and DNA.

[A note on gene names: Remember that when Morgan and his colleagues were working out the rules of fly genetics, they did not have any information on the structure of DNA, or how the information used by the organism might be coded; hence they did not know the actual functions of the genes they studied. Their knowledge of a gene was based simply on the inherited phenotype. The white gene is required to have a fly with red eyes, so you might have named the gene red, but the name always refers to the mutant phenotype – here, white eyes – so the name given to the gene was white.]

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bridges the gap between chemical synthesis and chemical engineering by adapting synthetic routes to the efficient, safe, and environmentally-responsible methods for large-scale synthesis. (The design and construction of working plants is the province of .)

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But there's no denying that the discovery of DNA was a tremendous milestone in the exploration of evolution. While evolutionary biologists were fashioning the Modern Synthesis, geneticists around the world searched furiously for the molecules that carried genetic information. They knew that cells contained several different types of molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids. But which had the capacity to bear information and be copied into new cells? Experiments showed that nucleic acids could affect hereditary traits. A young American geneticist named James Watson (left) was one of the researchers who realized that the only way to determine whether they did in fact carry genes was to understand their structure.