Kinetics and metabolism in laboratory animals and humans

Meier JR, Monarca S, Patterson KS, Villarini M, Daniel FB, Moretti M, & Pasquini R (1996) Urine mutagenicity and biochemical effects of the drinking water mutagen, 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) following repeated oral administration to mice and rats.

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The well known indicator methyl-orange is ..

Cole WJ, Mitchell RG, & Salamonsen RF (1975) Isolation, characterization and quantitation of chloral hydrate as a transient metabolite of trichloroethylene in man using electron capture gas chromatography and mass fragmentography.

Acids and bases - Chemical Formula

Mengele K, Schwarzmeier J, Schmidt P, & Moser K (1969) [Clinical features and investigations of the erythrocyte metabolism in case of intoxication with sodium chlorate.] Int J Clin Pharmacol, 2: 120-125 (in German).

Report of a case of sodium chlorate poisoning complicated by methemoglobinemia and acute renal failure.
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There is a characteristic delay in the production of methaemoglobin by chlorate when erythrocytes are incubated in the presence of chlorate (Singelmann et al., 1984).

Methyl orange; Methyl violet; References ..

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4.1.3 Dibromochloromethane General toxicological properties and information on dose-response in animals 1) Acute toxicity Acute oral LD50s of 800 and 1200 mg of DBCM per kg of body weight were reported by Bowman et al.

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There was some evidence for binding to protein and retention of label within tissues, but no attempt was made to identify the chemical form in which the 14C was bound, so it was not clear whether MX was binding by virtue of its electrophilic character or whether this represented metabolic incorporation of metabolites of MX.

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Bladder cancer risks and estimated cumulative exposure to trihalomethanes in Colorado (USA)a THMs-years of exposure Odds ratiob (µg/litre-year) 0 1.0 <200 1.8 201-600 1.1 >600 1.8 a From McGeehin et al.