the cellular organelles responsible for protein synthesis.

An increase in the permeability of outer mitochondrial membrane is central to apoptotic cell death, and results in the release of several apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c into the cytoplasm to activate downstream destructive programs. The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC or mitochondrial porin) plays an essential role in disrupting the mitochondrial membrane barrier and is regulated directly by members of the Bcl-2 family proteins. Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members interact with and close the VDAC, whereas some, but not all, proapoptotic members interact with VDAC to open protein-conducting pore through which apoptogenic factors pass. Although the VDAC is involved directly in breaking the mitochondrial membrane barrier and is a known component of the permeability transition pore complex, VDAC-dependent increase in outer membrane permeability can be independent of the permeability transition event such as mitochondrial swelling followed by rupture of the outer mitochondrial membrane. VDAC interacts not only with Bcl-2 family members but also with proteins such as gelsolin, an actin regulatory protein, and appears to be a convergence point for a variety of cell survival and cell death signals

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but they provide the blueprint in the form of RNA, which directs the protein synthesis.

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Additionally, many macromolecules are involved in regulating and promoting the synthesis and breakdown of other macromolecules. Carbohydrates and lipids store energy needed to drive synthesis reactions. Nucleic acids store and transmit information that directs which macromolecules to synthesize, while protein and nucleic acid enzymes catalyze chemical reactions in both synthesis and degradation of macromolecules. The sum of all chemical reactions synthesizing and breaking down in living organisms is collectively referred to as an organism’s .

to a strand of RNA that then directs protein synthesis

The billions of complex biomolecules that collectively compose a living cell are classified into four macromolecule groups: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. From providing cell structure and protection to catalyzing vital chemical reactions, each macromolecule group plays a vital role in maintaining and propagating life.

The synthesis of proteins takes two steps: transcription and .Home » Protein synthesis.
Includes all the major steps of Protein Synthesis and a quiz at the end.

Used as sites for protein synthesis.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;986:209-20. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-4719-7_11.
Cannabinoid signaling in glioma cells.
Ellert-Miklaszewska A1, Ciechomska I, Kaminska B.
Cannabinoids are a group of structurally heterogeneous but pharmacologically related compounds, including plant-derived cannabinoids, synthetic substances and endogenous cannabinoids, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Cannabinoids elicit a wide range of central and peripheral effects mostly mediated through cannabinoid receptors. There are two types of specific G(i/o)-protein-coupled receptors cloned so far, called CB1 and CB2, although an existence of additional cannabinoid-binding receptors has been suggested. CB1 and CB2 differ in their predicted amino acid sequence, tissue distribution, physiological role and signaling mechanisms. Significant alterations of a balance in the cannabinoid system between the levels of endogenous ligands and their receptors occur during malignant transformation in various types of cancer, including gliomas. Cannabinoids exert anti-proliferative action in tumor cells. Induction of cell death by cannabinoid treatment relies on the generation of a pro-apoptotic sphingolipid ceramide and disruption of signaling pathways crucial for regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. Increased ceramide levels lead also to ER-stress and autophagy in drug-treated glioblastoma cells.

noun, plural: syntheses (biology) The creation of proteins by cells that uses DNA, RNA and various enzymes.

Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University

In the adult brain, neurons rapidly communicate through specialised contacts called synapses. The strength of communication at a synapse can be modified as a function of its past use. These changes are mediated, in part, by the local protein synthesis at the synapse.

The large….Steps in Protein Synthesis: STEP 1: The first step in protein synthesis is the transcription of mRNA from a DNA gene in the nucleus.

ER stress and the unfolded protein response - …

Neurons exhibit extensive and compartmentalised arbours of axons and dendrites, which place unique demands on the timing and location of protein synthesis.