Darwinism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Natural selection, if it is to resemble the Darwinian concept thatbears that name, must be reserved for reference to an interactionbetween a variable, heritable feature of an organic system and theenvironment of that system. That interaction may or may notchange the proportions of those features across generations, and thoseproportions may change for reasons other than those interactions. Buta plausible natural selection hypothesis must posit some suchinteraction. On this issue Iwill give the last word to Stephen Jay Gould:

Darwin and Darwinism 2.1 Darwin's Life

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is Charles Darwin's third ..

This entry first formulates ‘Darwin's Darwinism’ in terms of five ..

Privately, Darwin early on decided he could not practice medicine. Buthis already serious inclination toward science was considerablystrengthened at Edinburgh both by some fine scientific lectures inchemistry, geology and anatomy and by the mentoring of Dr. RobertGrant. Grant certainly knew that young Charles was Erasmus Darwin'sgrandson; Grant expounded evolutionary ideas derived fromJean-Baptiste Lamarck and Charles’ grandfather. But his primarygift to Charles was introducing him to marine invertebrate anatomy andthe use of the microscope as a scientific tool and as an aid todissecting extremely small creatures dredged out of the Firth ofForth. Darwin joined an Edinburgh scientific society, the Plineansociety, of which Grant was a prominent member, and presented twolectures that reported discoveries he had made while working withGrant. This interest in marine invertebrates was to be a life longobsession, climaxing in his massive four-volume contribution to thecomparative anatomy and systematics of fossil and living Cirripedia or‘barnacles’. (Barrett & Freeman 1988,vols. 11–13)

Darwin's Principle of Antithesis - Duration: 3:13

(57)-pendicularly upwards; her ears are erect and pointed; her mouth is closed; and sherubs against her master with a purr instead of a growl. Let it further be observed howwidely different is the whole bearing of an affectionate eat from that of a dog, when withhis body crouching and flexuous, his tail lowered and wagging, and ears depressed, hecaresses his master. This contrast in the attitudes and movements of these two carnivorousanimals, under the same pleased and affectionate frame of mind, can be explained, as itappears to me, solely by their movements standing in complete antithesis to those whichare naturally assumed, when these animals feel savage and are prepared either to fight orto seize their prey.

Charles Darwin, The Expression of ..
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals by Charles Darwin was published in ..

mainly by Charles Darwin in his 1872 ..

The problem confronts us at once that we may be concocting the equivalent of the law of inertia via the claims for natural selection, and that the ‘force’ factor, the driver of evolution, acting at short range perhaps, is entirely invisible to us in the interstices of the immense time we see for the development of new species. It is precisely this kind of resurgent abstraction that biologists themselves have brought to certain points of the record, that is the various claims for punctuated equilibrium. It is almost inevitable that such thinking should spontaneously occur in a field dominated by Darwinian gradualism. For the suspicion is that we have missed completely the real incidents of change that really drive the whole process.

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals by Charles Darwin, ..

Darwin's "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and …

Darwinism designates a distinctive form of evolutionary explanationfor the history and diversity of life on earth. Its originalformulation is provided in the first edition of On the Origin ofSpecies in 1859. This entry first formulates ‘Darwin'sDarwinism’ in terms of five philosophically distinctive themes:(i) probability and chance, (ii) the nature, power and scope ofselection, (iii) adaptation and teleology, (iv) nominalismvs. essentialism about species and (v) the tempo and mode ofevolutionary change. Both Darwin and his critics recognized that hisapproach to evolution was distinctive on each of these topics, and itremains true that, though Darwinism has developed in many waysunforeseen by Darwin, its proponents and critics continue todifferentiate it from other approaches in evolutionary biology byfocusing on these themes. This point is illustrated in the secondhalf of the entry by looking at current debates in the philosophy ofevolutionary biology on these five themes.

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except through the principle of antithesis

A fifth contribution was Darwin’s explanation of why particular movements signal a particular emotion. Why is the raised upper lip included in one of the anger expressions, for example? Darwin attributed this to it having been a “serviceable habit,” exposing the canine teeth, which threaten harm to come, as well as preparing for the attack. Stripped of its Lamarckian baggage, this explanation is consistent with contemporary ethological accounts of how signals evolved from intention movements, providing the foundation for current formulations of how signals become ritualized or formalized. Darwin also proposed a principle of antithesis, whereby a signal has a certain form because it is the opposite of another signal. For example, the dog (and many other animals) puffs itself up to appear larger in a potentially antagonistic encounter, which Darwin explained as based on the principle of serviceable habits. But the antithesis of that movement is the submissive slinking and lowering of the body.