Protein biosynthesis - Wikipedia

So now a few things may start to come together in terms of dieting or mass gains or what have you. When you eat less (diet), a lot of things occur. One of those is going to be a decreased cellular energy charge (an effect which may be increased by glycogen depletion and, of course, exercise). Fat oxidation goes up, insulin sensitivity goes up, good things happen in terms of fat loss. But the drawback is that, due to changes in hormone levels and AMPk signaling you get hungry. As well, protein synthesis is inhibited (this is a huge part of why it’s so hard to gain muscle while losing fat at the same time).

Protein synthesis - Biology-Online Dictionary

that inhibit cellular protein synthesis

Video: Protein synthesis: an epic on the cellular level

Under non-dieting circumstances, although AMPk will be activated during training, impairing protein synthesis, providing nutrients afterwards (i.e. carbs + proteins) is known to reverse the catabolic processes and turn on anabolic processes. Making me wonder if pre- or during-workout nutrition can actually prevent the activation of AMPk in the first place (by limiting the drop in cellular energy charge). To my knowledge, it hasn’t been studied but it would make some logical sense.

Protein synthesis: an epic on the cellular level

AMPk and its function also explains one of the older models of hypertrophy whereby protein synthesis was acutely depressed during exercise. Activation of AMPk during exercise directly inhibits mTOR and protein synthesis. The recovery of cellular energy post-workout allows protein synthesis to increase and growth to occur. Note also the huge push on the provision of amino acids, specifically leucine, post-workout as leucine directly activates mTOR, turning on protein synthesis.

Proteins are assembled from amino acids using information encoded in genes

Endoplasmic reticulum - Wikipedia

Principles of Biochemistry/Cell Metabolism III: Synthesis of protein

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