Cellular respiration - Wikipedia

The Versatility of Catabolism. Fats, proteins, and carbohydrates can all be used by cellular respiration to make ATP. Proteins are digested into amino acids, which are then deaminated and can enter into respiration at several sites. The digestion of fats yields glycerol, which is converted to an intermediate of glycolysis, and fatty acids, which are broken down by beta oxidation to two-carbon fragments that enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl CoA.

coupled to ATP synthesis, blocking ATP ..

Respiration is one of the key ways a cell releases chemical energy to fuel cellular activity

Cellular respiration is a complex set of enzyme ..

Metabolism includes catabolism and anabolism. Anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from precursors, while catabolism is the breakdown of complex molecules into smaller precursors from which they are synthesized. All these pathways involve biochemical reactions. Free energy describes whether a reaction will occur spontaneously. In metabolism, reactions which are spontaneous are favorable because these run automatically and release free energy. Every reaction has an activation energy which can be lowered down by enzymes. Enzymes do this by bringing the reactants closer together. ATP is the energy currency of all cells. Most of the reactions in the cell require ATP. A non-spontaneous reaction can be coupled to ATP hydrolysis reaction to enable the overall reaction release free energy and therefore become favorable. ATP is generated by cellular respiration, which contains fermentation (anaerobic respiration) and the Krebs cycle (aerobic fermentation).

force to create energy in the form of ATP

It takes place in the mitochondria, consuming oxygen, producing carbon dioxide and water as waste products, and converting ADP to energy-rich ATP.
Location:
Mitochondrion
Two Types of Fermentation
Lactic Acid Fermentation:
The process by which our muscle cells deal with pyruvate during anaerobic respiration.
Alcoholic Fermentation:
A type of cellular respiration which does not require oxygen (anaerobic respiration), and involves the breaking down of glucose to pyruvic acid and then finally ethanol.
Alcoholic Fermentation
Lactic Acid Fermentation:
Electron Transport
Chain

Definition of the Electron Transport Chain:
A group of compounds that pass electrons from one to another coupled with the transfer of protons across a membrane to create a proton gradient that drives ATP synthesis.
Location:
Inner mitochondrial membrane
How do you inputs and outputs of photosynthesis relate to those of respiration?
The inputs and outputs of photosynthesis relate to those of respiration because the outputs of photosynthesis (oxygen, glucose, and water) are the inputs of respiration.

04/06/2016 · What is ATP synthase in cellular respiration
The transfer of electrons to O2 is coupled to the formation of ATP such ..

the enzyme reaction can also be carried out in reverse, with ATP ..

The exchange of metabolites between the matrix and the cytosol is a potential regulatory event for mitochondrial function that involves transport across both mitochondrial membranes. For instance, oxidative phosphorylation can be controlled by the rate of adenine nucleotide exchange between the matrix and the cytosol (, ). When IL-3-dependent FL5.12 cells are withdrawn from IL-3, the cells undergo a metabolic arrest that results in death between 18 and 24 h. In the presence of growth factors, mitochondria maintain cellular ATP levels by coupling the rate of oxidative phosphorylation to the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio (). However, after 12 h of growth factor deprivation, a significant decrease in cellular ATP is observed (Fig. A). The decrease in ATP is accompanied by an increase in cellular ADP as well as a decreased rate of electron transport, as measured by oxygen consumption (Fig. B and data not shown). These changes in cellular adenine nucleotide levels suggest that oxidative phosphorylation is no longer coupled to cytosolic ADP.

09/08/2017 · Cellular respiration is a process by which ..

and oxidative phosphorylation stage of cellular respiration

Metabolism includes catabolism and anabolism. Anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from precursors, while catabolism is the breakdown of complex molecules into smaller precursors from which they are synthesized. All these pathways involve biochemical reactions. Free energy describes whether a reaction will occur spontaneously. In metabolism, reactions which are spontaneous are favorable because these run automatically and release free energy. Every reaction has an activation energy which can be lowered down by enzymes. Enzymes do this by bringing the reactants closer together. ATP is the energy currency of all cells. Most of the reactions in the cell require ATP. A non-spontaneous reaction can be coupled to ATP hydrolysis reaction to enable the overall reaction release free energy and therefore become favorable. ATP is generated by cellular respiration, which contains fermentation (anaerobic respiration) and the Krebs cycle (aerobic fermentation).

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Which type of reactions are coupled to ATP synthesis

Loss of ADP-coupled respiration can occur as a result of defective mitochondrial ATP/ADP exchange (). Consistent with this hypothesis, mitochondria isolated from cells deprived of growth factor demonstrate a substantially reduced ability to take up ADP when compared with mitochondria prepared from cells growing in the presence of IL-3 (Fig. C). The inability of mitochondria to exchange adenine nucleotides with the cytosol could be caused by a defect in ANT function at the inner membrane or in the passage through VDAC in the outer membrane. To test whether decreased transport across the outer membrane could be responsible for the decreased uptake of ADP, the outer mitochondrial membrane was removed by using digitonin and the resulting mitoplasts tested for the uptake of ADP. In contrast to mitochondria, mitoplasts prepared from growth factor-deprived cells have a restored ability to take up ADP (Fig. C). In fact, mitoplasts prepared from IL-3-withdrawn cells reproducibly import more ADP than mitoplasts from cells cultured continuously in the presence of IL-3. This is consistent with the reported ADP-depleted state of mitochondria after growth factor withdrawal (). These data suggest that a primary defect in the ANT is not responsible for the decreased rate of ATP/ADP exchange present in growth factor-deprived cells.