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An example of how epinephrine (a flight/fight hormone) can lead to breakdown of glycogen (your main carbohydrate reserves in muscle and liver) is shown below. A cascade of events, starting with the binding of the hormone to its receptor, followed by activation of adenylate cyclase, which forms cAMP, which activates PKA, which leads to the activation of the enzyme that breaks down glycogen (glycogen phosphorylase) is shown. (For simplicity, G protein involvement is not shown.)

I suspect it was just enough to deplete muscle glycogen stores.

Ensuring maximal repletionof glycogen on multi day rides starts even before you get on the bike.

Muscle glycogen content did min after exercise.

This type of fatigue is a particular risk at the elite athlete level where there may be multiple training sessions (or competitions) per day, and limited time to eat.It is important to maximize your total body glycogen stores by using dietary carbohydratesto your advantage - before, during, as well as after a ride.

Muscle glycogen synthesis rates ..

{NOTE: Although any increase in glycogen stores WILL increase the DURATION of exercise to fatigue, they WILL NOT increase MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE (VO2max)}

T1 - Impact of caffeine and protein on postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis.

Can Caffeine or Protein Intake Influence Muscle Glycogen

“It’s well known that carbohydrate feeding blunts the increase in free fatty acids,” he says, which of course ends up blunting the increase in serotonin, “so carbohydrates cannot only delay glycogen depletion, but they also delay central fatigue.” In addition, brain function in general is highly dependent upon blood glucose, as anyone who tries to calculate mile splits at mile 23 probably knows.

Energy coverage of muscle contraction Muscle glycogen resynthesis after endurance exercise

Post-Workout Coffee Boosts Glycogen ..

Two distinct allosteric inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase, 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (DAB) and CP-91149 (an indole-2-carboxamide), were investigated for their effects on the phosphorylation state of the enzyme in hepatocytes in vitro. CP-91149 induced inactivation (dephosphorylation) of phosphorylase in the absence of hormones and partially counteracted the phosphorylation caused by glucagon. Inhibition of glycogenolysis by CP-91149 can be explained by dephosphorylation of phosphorylase a. This was associated with activation of glycogen synthase and stimulation of glycogen synthesis. DAB, in contrast, induced a small degree of phosphorylation of phosphorylase. This was associated with inactivation of glycogen synthase and inhibition of glycogen synthesis. Despite causing phosphorylation (activation) of phosphorylase, DAB is a very potent inhibitor of glycogenolysis in both the absence and presence of glucagon. This is explained by allosteric inhibition of phosphorylase a, which overrides the increase in activation state. In conclusion, two potent phosphorylase inhibitors exert different effects on glycogen metabolism in intact hepatocytes as a result of opposite effects on the phosphorylation state of both phosphorylase and glycogen synthase.

Glycogen synthase is a tetrameric enzyme consisting of 4 identical subunits.

What Makes a Good Recovery Drink, Part 1: Glycogen Repletion

Postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis in obese pdfCHO) or fasting (Fast) on postexercise glycogen resynthesis in soleus muscle and liver from female lean (ZL) and obese insulin-resistant (ZO) Zucker ratsRegulation of glycogen resynthesis following exercise Given the importance of muscle glycogen to endurance performance, various factors which may optimise glycogen resynthesis rate and insure completePost-exercise muscle glycogen resynthesis in pdfOct 2016 Post-Exercise Muscle Glycogen Resynthesis in Humans 1 2 Louise M Burke1, 2, Luc J C van Loon1,3and John A Hawley1,4 3 4 1 CentreHigh rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after Jul 2008 We determined the effect of coingestion of caffeine (Caff) with carbohydrate (CHO ) on rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis during recoveryThe role of dietary carbohydrates in muscle glycogen This study examined the effect of the type, amount, and the frequency of feeding of carbohydrates on muscle glycogen resynthesis after running Trained malePost-Exercise Caffeine Helps Muscles Refuel - American The study, “High rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after exhaustive exercise when carbohydrate is co-ingested with caffeine,” is by David J Pedersen, Sarah

Current study - "...rates of glycogen recovery were not different across the diets (6.9 ?

Studies regarding glycogen synthesis rates ..

There is no data to support a benefit to eating protein immediately,in this 4 hour time interval, as compared to the entire 24 hours post exercise. If you don't manage to replace glycogen during the 4 hour window, don't worry.