1. Biosynthesis of Diacylglycerophospholipids

Nevertheless, there are some remarkable differences between sphingolipids of Drosophila and mammals. The major sphingoid bases in Drosophila and other dipterans are tetradecasphingenine (C14) and hexadecasphingenine (C16) as compared with octadecasphingenine (C18) in mammals (, ). Also, the fatty acids that are amino-linked to the sphingoid bases to create ceramides are shorter in Drosophila sphingolipids in comparison with mammals. These characteristics predict that membranes would remain fluid even at lower temperature, which correlates well with the requirement of lower ambient temperatures for Drosophila survival. Moreover, Drosophila lacks the phosphocholine-containing sphingomyelin (SM) found in mammalian membranes and instead synthesizes ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE) (, , ). The smaller cross-sectional area of the phosphoethanolamine headgroup in CPE allows a closer contact between these molecules in comparison with SM, promoting membrane viscosity. Contrary to SM, CPE does not interact favorably with cholesterol and fails to form sterol-rich domains in model bilayers (). Addressing how each organism evolved functional membranes based on such highly divergent membrane components is an important topic in lipid biology.

2. Biosynthesis of Plasmalogens and Alkylacylglycerophospholipids

Metabolism oflipids:oxidation and biosynthesis of

Different Types of Sphingolipids and Their Biosynthesis

In T. brucei, PS represents a minor membrane component [,]. Its biosynthetic pathway has not been firmly established [,]. A candidate gene encoding a putative PS synthase, or a PSS2, has been identified in the T. brucei genome (, ). Experiments to establish the route for PS formation in T. brucei are currently under way in our laboratories.

Reactions involved in the biosynthesis of glycerophospholipids

Araki W and Wurtman RJ (1998) How is membrane phospholipid biosynthesis controlled in neural tissues? Journal of Neuroscience Research 51: 667–674.

This compound is also formed in theoxidative degradation of the amino acids valine and isoleucine.

The base exchange pathway for phosphatidylserine synthesis ..

Completion of the Tri-Tryp (T. brucei, T. cruzi, Leishmania spp.) genome projects () has allowed putative identification of homologues of genes necessary for de novo biosynthesis of all classes of phospholipids. Recently, several biosynthetic enzymes involved in de novo synthesis of phospholipids have been characterized experimentally, including enzymes involved in de novo synthesis of fatty acids and the major glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid classes, and several catabolic enzymes, including two phospholipases and a sphingomyelinase (see below). As more enzymes involved in phospholipid metabolism are characterized, our understanding of these parasites will allow direct comparisons with man, and thus new targets are likely to emerge for the development of new anti-protozoan drugs.

This compound is alsoformed in the oxidative degradation of the amino acids valine and isoleucine.

19/05/2017 · Biosynthesis of sphingophospholipids

Cholesterol is a vital cell membraneconstituent and the precursor of steroid hormones and bile acids. Itis both essential and can be detrimental to life depending on thequantities. It is associated with cardiovascular disease and strokein humans. There is an intricate balance between biosynthesis,utilization, and transport of cholesterol, keeping its harmfuldeposition to a minimum. The trouble comes when that balance isdisturbed.

This compound is also formed inthe oxidative degradation of the amino acids valine and isoleucine.

blocking the biosynthesis of sphingolipid complexes.

Kennedy EP (1986) The biosynthesis of phospholipids. In: Op den Kamp JAF, Roelofsen B and Wirtz KWA (eds) Lipids and Membranes: Past, Present and Future, pp. 171–206. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

In the first place total biosynthesis of fatty acids occurs in thecytosol, whereas fatty acid oxidation occurs in the mitochondria.

Glycerophospholipids - eLS: Essential for Life Science

Glycerophospholipids are important both as structural and functional components of the cellular membrane and as precursors of various lipid mediators. Even though the biosynthesis of glycerophospholipids and phospholipids were already described [,], functions of DGAT in diatoms such as P. tricornutum are still needed to be further characterized. It has been demonstrated that DGAT can affect the oil content through catalyzing the last step on the TAG biosynthetic pathway. For instance, the expression of fungal diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 increased maize kernel oil by 26% []. In the current study, DGAT2 overexpression in P. tricornutum increased neutral lipid content by 35%, and its mRNA expression was increased by up to 6.5-fold ().