Vance, J. E. 2010. Membrane Lipid Biosynthesis. eLS. .

Plant storage lipids, normally in the form of intracellular triacylglycerol‐rich droplets, are important sources of nutrition for people and livestock; besides, they supply a vast range of renewable industrial products from oleochemicals and bioplastics to paints and biofuels. Storage lipids are mainly found in plant propagules such as seeds and pollen grains, where they form an energy source for post‐germinative growth. The main commercial sources of plant storage lipids are oilseed crops such as soybean, rapeseed and maize or oil‐rich fruits such as olive or oil palm. Triacylglycerols also have several additional nonstorage functions in processes including host–pathogen interactions and abiotic stress responses. Improved knowledge of storage lipid metabolism is being used to create new oil crop varieties and to domesticate new species to supply the ever‐increasing demand for plant oils.

T1 - Biosynthesis of membrane lipids

They typically havean even number of carbon atoms due to their biosynthetic pathway.

T1 - Impaired membrane traffic in defective ether lipid biosynthesis

Gliozzi A, Relini A and Chong PL‐G (2002) Structure and permeability properties of biomimetic membranes of bolaform archaeal tetraether lipids. Journal of Membrane Science 206: 131–147.

He proposed that the cellmembranes were made of lipids.

Tenchov B, Vescio EM, Sprott GD et al. (2006) Salt tolerance of archaeal extremely halophilic lipid membranes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 281: 10016–10023.

Lipid bilayers provide the fundamental architecture of biological membranes.

Lipids of the Plant Plasma Membrane

AB - Non-acetylated glucosamine is an unusual structural feature shared by all glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipids, including a variety of membrane anchors, the leishmanial lipophosphoglycan, and a mediator of insulin action. We proposed previously a pathway for biosynthesis of glycolipid A, the precursor of the GPI membrane anchor of the trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein (Masterson, W.J., Doering, T.L., Hart, G.W., and Englund, P.T. (1989) Cell 56, 793-800). In this paper we characterize in more detail the initial steps of GPI assembly. The first and committed step in the pathway is the transfer of GlcNAc, from UDP-GlcNAc, to endogenous phosphatidylinositol to form N-acetylglucosaminyl phosphatidylinositol (GlcNAc-PI). The GlcNAc-PI is then efficiently deacetylated to form glucosaminyl phosphatidylinositol (GlcN-PI), the substrate for subsequent reactions en route to glycolipid A.

Differences in Gel and Liquid Crystalline Phases in Phospholipids Bilayers

Biosynthesis of membrane lipids in rat axons - Europe PMC

Ulrih NP, Gmajner D and Raspor P (2009) Structural and physicochemical properties of polar lipids from thermophilic archaea. Applied Microbiology Biotechnology 84: 249–260.

The composition of the phospholipid bilayer is distinct in archaea when compared to bacteria and eukarya.

Regulation and Pathways of Membrane Lipid Biosynthesis in Bacilli

Biological membranes consist of a complex array of proteins and lipids that create selective permeability barriers in cells. Another function of membrane lipids is their degradation to generate ‘lipid second messengers’ that can regulate important cellular functions such as cell division and cell death. The major membrane lipids of eukaryotic cells are the glycerophospholipids, the sterols and the sphingolipids. The most abundant glycerophospholipids in eukaryotic cells are phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, each of which is synthesised by two independent pathways. The glycosphingolipids consist of structures in which ceramide is attached to a variety of oligosaccharide chains to create an enormously diverse class of lipids that are highly enriched on the cell surface. In mammalian cells, cholesterol is the most abundant sterol in membranes, whereas plants and fungi do not contain cholesterol but instead contain sterols that are related to cholesterol; prokaryotic membranes do not contain sterols.

biosynthesis of. 6471; 66f; in bipolar disorder. Patchoulol; 4748; 48t; Pathogens, databases search for; Serotonin agonists (5HT 3) 184.

Membrane Lipids/biosynthesis; Substances

We have identified and analyzed many sphingolipid metabolic genes (Figure 1, pink). Most notably, we have succeeded in determining the entire sphingolipid degradation pathway via sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and in identifying the genes involved. S1P is well known as a lipid mediator that exists in plasma at concentrations of hundreds of nanomolar, and it plays pivotal roles in the vascular and immune systems. Its function in the immune system has already been utilized in a clinical application, and the immunomodulator fingolimod (development code: FTY720) is used as a therapeutic agent for multiple sclerosis. Besides its function as a lipid mediator, S1P is also important as a metabolic intermediate of the sphingolipid degradation pathway. This function is conserved in organisms ranging from yeasts to humans and has an older origin than its function as a lipid mediator. Sphingosine, the precursor of S1P, is the major long-chain base in mammals and exists ubiquitously. On the other hand, phytosphingosine, which contains a hydroxy group at the C4 position, exists in specific tissues such as the skin, small intestine, and kidney. We recently described the phytosphingosine metabolic pathway and revealed that phytosphingosine is converted to pentadecanoic acid, an odd-numbered fatty acid, via 2-hydroxypalmitic acid.