Ethylene biosynthesis in plants

Plant fibres with a tertiary cell wall (G-layer) may function as plant ‘muscles’. Large-scale transcriptome profiling of isolated flax phloem fibres permitted to identify the major players and regulatory elements that operate during graviresponce specifically in the fibres of the pulling stem side. The suggested mechanisms of phloem fibre involvement in tropisms may considerably renew the concept of herbaceous plant behaviour upon gravistimulation.

The Biosynthesis of Ethylene - Faculty | Biology …

Protein turnover plays a critical role in both ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signalling.

Ethylene Biosynthesis and its Regulation in Higher Plants

Phosphinothricin is a broad spectrum herbicide and is effective against broad-leafed weeds. It acts as a competitive inhibitor
of the enzyme glutamine synthase which results in the inhibition of the enzyme glutamine synthase and accumulation of ammonia and finally the death of the plant. The disturbace in the glutamine synthesis also inhibits the photosynthetic activity.
The enzyme phosphinothricin acetyl transferase ( which was first observed in Streptomyces sp in natural detoxifying mechanism against phosphinothricin) acetylates phosphinothricin, and thus inactivates the herbicide. The gene encoding for phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (bar gene) was introduced in transgenic maize and oil seed rape to provide resistance against phosphinothricin.

Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signaling Networks | Plant Cell

Nature of Abscisic Acid
Abscisic acid is a single compound unlike the auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinins. It was called "abscisin II" originally because it was thought to play a major role in abscission of fruits. At about the same time another group was calling it "dormin" because they thought it had a major role in bud dormancy. The name abscisic acid (ABA) was coined by a compromise between the two groups. Though ABA generally is thought to play mostly inhibitory roles, it has many promoting functions as well (Arteca, 1996; Mauseth, 1991; Raven, 1992; Salisbury and Ross, 1992).

T1 - Regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in response to pollination in tomato flowers
von Sachs, J. (1880). "Stoff und Form der Pflanzenorgane I". Arb. Bot. Inst. Wurzburg 2:452-488.

Mechanisms of ethylene biosynthesis and response in plants

The abiotic stresses due to temperature, drought, and salinity are collectively also known as water deficit stresses. The plants produce osmolytes or osmoprotectants to overcome the osmotic stress. The attempts are on to use genetic engineering strategies to increase the production of osmoprotectants in the plants. The biosynthetic pathways for the production of many osmoprotectants have been established and genes coding the key enzymes have been isolated. E.g. Glycine betaine is a cellular osmolyte which is produced by the participation of a number of key enzymes like choline dehydrogenase, choline monooxygenase etc. The choline oxidase gene from Arthrobacter sp. was used to produce transgenic rice with high levels of glycine betaine giving tolerance against water deficit stress.
Scientists also developed cold-tolerant genes (around 20) in Arabidopsis when this plant was gradually exposed to slowly declining temperature. By introducing the coordinating gene (it encodes a protein which acts as transcription factor for regulating the expression of cold tolerant genes), expression of cold tolerant genes was triggered giving protection to the plants against the cold temperatures.

Mattoo AK and Suttle JC (1991) The Plant Hormone Ethylene. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc.

Ethylene biosynthesis and action in tomato: a model …

Root properties impact strongly on plant performance, but high-throughput methods for non-invasive and quantitative root trait assessment are rarely available. We developed and tested a root phenotyping concept, which involves NIR imaging of roots grown along surfaces of transparent culture vessels using visible light blocking long pass filters. We reveal the viability of the concept and its suitability for simultaneous root and shoot phenotyping.

Mount SM and Chang C (2002) Evidence for a plastid origin of plant ethylene receptor genes. Plant Physiology 130: 10–14.

Regulation of Ethylene Biosynthesis and ..

Treatment times vary depending on conditioning and ripening stage required but once fruit has reached the desired pulp temperature a treatment time of 24 hours with a room ethylene concentration of 10 L/L is sufficient to stimulate coordinated ripening for many climacteric fruits.