Comparison of Ergot Alkaloid Biosynthesis Gene …

Taxol (paclitaxel), an effective antitumor compound, is an example of a steroidalkaloid (Fig. 1 of Kutchan, 1995; The Plant Cell 7:1059-1070; Fig class text).

(eds.): Ergot alkaloids and related compounds

(1978) Ergot alkaloids and related compounds, Berlin, Springer Verlag, pp.

Ergot alkaloids are compounds derived from the parasitic ..

The mycelial dry weight of and ergot alkaloids accumulation decreased by increasing the irradiation dose levels and the fungus was completely inhibited at 3.0 kGy.

Ergot alkaloids and related compounds

The formation of isoquinoline alkaloids can be illustrated bybiosynthesis of peyote alkaloids by the peyote cactus involving at least 7steps. The principal biosynthetic precursor is tyrosine, which ishydroxylated to dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) which is decarboxylated todopamine. One of the hydroxyl groups of dopamine is methylated, anotherhydroxyl added and a 2nd hydroxyl group methylated forming3-hydroxy-4, 5-dimethoxyphenylethylamine. This condenses with glyoxylateforming peyoxylic acid that can be converted into various other peyotealkaloids:

(1981a) Variability in the content and composition of alkaloids found in Canadian ergot.

ergot alkaloids and related compounds.

This book presents all important aspects of modern alkaloid chemistry, making it the only work of its kind to offer up to date and comprehensive coverage. While the first part concentrates on the structure and biology of bioactive alkaloids, the second one analyzes new trends in alkaloid isolation and structure elucidation, as well as in alkaloid synthesis and biosynthesis. It is a must for biochemists, organic, natural products, and medicinal chemists, as well as pharmacologists, pharmaceutists, and those working in the pharmaceutical industry.

Alkaloid are naturally occurring chemical compounds ..

Alkaloids are a class of "secondary" plant metabolites thattraditionally have been classified as basic compounds derived from amino acidsthat contain one or more heterocyclic nitrogen atoms. Although thisdefinition holds for most known alkaloids recently any N containing secondarycompound is considered an alkaloid if it cannot readily be classified otherwise-- i.e. not an amine, cyanogenic glycoside, glucosinolate, etc. The wordalkaloid is derived from the Arabic , a plant from which soda was1st isolated. The original definition for alkaloids is , of plant origin. Humans have been usingalkaloids in the form of plant extracts for poisons, narcotics, stimulants andmedicines for at least the past several thousand years. Morphine wasisolated from poppy seeds in 1806 although its structure wasn't known until1952. The antimalarial properties of quinine, an alkaloid extracted fromthe bark of spp. trees indigenous to the high eastern slopes ofthe have long been known. More than 10,000 alkaloids of widely differing structures are now known fromthe small fraction of the planet's plants that have so far been examined. Most medicinal compounds have traditionally been extracted from plant tissuesalthough modern synthetic chemistry has attempted to synthesize all importantmedicinal compounds. Still ~25% of compounds used in western medicine areplant-derived and most are still derived from plants in traditional medicine. Recent advances in plant genetic engineering are likely to make plants thepreferred source of many medicinal compounds again in the future with"Pharming" developments.

biosynthesis of 9 and related compounds ..

Isoquinoline alkaloids, which have an N-heterocycle isomeric to quinoline, can be derived from tyrosine. Morphine is an isoquinoline alkaloid:

The ergot alkaloids are indole compounds that are ..

Alkaloids are naturally occurring containing atoms. Thename derives from the word and is used to describe anynitrogen-containing base and organic compounds with one or more ofthe following features: a containingnitrogen, with an alkaline and amarked physiological action on animal physiology. However, Thereare exceptions to each of these criteria. Alkaloids are produced bya large variety of organisms, including , , , and and are part of the group of (also called ). Many alkaloids can be purified from crudeextracts by . Manyalkaloids are toother organisms. They often have effects and are used as , as , or in rituals. Examples are the and , the stimulant , , the , or the . Most alkaloids have a .

of SECONDARY COMPOUNDS: Alkaloids are a class of "secondary ..

The classification of the alkaloids is complex and may be guidedby a set of rules that take into account the and other chemical features of the alkaloid molecule, itsbiological origin, as well as the where known.For example, where the biosynthesis pathway of an alkaloid isunknown, it may be grouped based on structural similarities withknown compounds, including non-nitrogenous compounds, or by theorganism(s) from which the alkaloid was isolated.