SparkNotes: SAT Subject Test: Biology: Protein Synthesis

Sometimes, a virus doesn't hijack the cell machinery as soon as it infects the cell. Retroviruses, which possess RNA as their core genetic material carry with them a special enzyme that uses RNA to make a complementary double-stranded DNA molecule. The enzyme (known as reverse transcriptase), synthesizes DNA from the virus' RNA and that DNA can become incorporated into the host cell's genome located in the nucleus.

Cell and Protein Synthesis | Cell (Biology) | Dna

Protein Synthesis Study Guide - Biology Junction

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This 3-D structure is essential for the correct functioning of the protein. A membrane transport protein, for example, is embedded in the cell membrane and is in the shape of a tunnel or passageway from one side of the membrane to the other. Its job is to allow certain molecules that fit correctly to pass into or out of the cell. Obviously, the transport protein's shape is going to be very important so that it can do its job correctly! A misformed transport protein may have a "blocked" passageway, meaning that important molecules could not pass into or out of the cell. Another example of a class of proteins whose shape is crucial for their proper function is enzymes.

When a cell makes a protein it is called protein synthesis.

What happens is that the protein folds into a 3-D structure where most of the hydrophobic amino acids are pointing into the inside of the structure (and away from the water) and where most of the hydrophilic amino acids are on the surface, pointing out into the water. Therefore, the types of amino acids and the order in which they are located in the chain, will determine how the protein will ultimately fold in water, and therefore what its 3-D structure will be in your body.

Occasionally exposure to toxins or malfunction of cellular processes, among other things, does cause copying mistakes.

Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis | Biology I

It is important to note that the tRNA is reused and collects another specific amino acid. Once the protein has been mRNA may move to another ribosome to make a further protein or it can be broken down into free nucleotides to be reused.

Protein Synthesis - Notes - Biology | Mrs. McComas

After translation, the protein passes into the channels of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for transportation. The protein is then passed from the rough ER to the Golgi apparatus inside tiny fluid-filled sacs, called vesicles. The Golgi apparatus is a system of , which are responsible for the modification, processing, and packaging of the proteins. The protein may have a carbohydrate added, to form a glycoprotein. The Golgi apparatus packages the protein in a secretory vesicle, which fuses with the cell membrane and releases the protein from the cell.

NADH and FADH2 donate electrons to the electron-transport chain () that consists of proteins located in the mitochondrial inner membrane.


1975 Günter Blobel and Bernhard Dobberstein use a Rube Goldberg concoction of mouse RNA, rabbit ribosomes, and dog ER to reconstruct cell biology's version of the ship in the bottle: how proteins a cell intends to secrete end up in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Mitochondria are highly unusual--they contain their own genetic material and protein-making machinery enwrapped in a double membrane.

Cell Biology: Protein Synthesis

A high-throughput screening of genes that encode proteins transported into the endoplasmic reticulum in mammalian cells. Ozawa T, Nishitani K, Sako Y, Umezawa Y. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005 Feb 24;33(4):e34.

Kids learn about proteins and amino acids in the science of biology including how ..

RNA and Protein Synthesis | A-Level Biology Revision …

A triplet of bases (3 bases) forms a codon. Each codon codes for a particular amino acid. Amino acids in turn link to form proteins. Therefore DNA and RNA regulate protein synthesis. The genetic code is the codons within DNA and RNA, composed of triplets of bases which eventually lead to protein synthesis.