Bering strait hypothesis by Cynthia Salyer - issuu

Some 20,000 to 25,000 years ago, towards the end of the Pleistocene (IceAges), monumental continental glaciers forming in the earth's northern hemisphere(especially in Canada and Greenland) locked up so much water that the world'socean levels were more than 300 feet lower than today. In the region ofthe Bering Strait, this drop in sea levels exposed a massive unglaciatedtract known the Bering Land Bridge. This bridge joined northeastAsia to modern Alaska and formed part of a much larger province called Beringa.When fully exposed Beringia was over 1000 miles wide. Many scientists presumethat it supported a tundra vegetation where Arctic fauna, particularly thecaribou, flourished.

The Bering Straight Land Bridge - University of …

Also,not all the groups in the Americas can be traced back to a Bering Straitmigration.

25/04/2017 · The Bering Straight Land Bridge

A careful estimate as of 2013 determined that humanity has reduced Earth’s plant-based biomass by more than a third since the beginnings of agriculture. Humanity certainly could not have industrialized by using wood. Arguments making the case that deforestation was not why coal was adopted in England are shaky and also irrelevant to the fact that England could not have industrialized with wood. Iron operations regularly shut down during England’s early industrial history due to wood shortages. The economics of coal were evident to even imperial Romans, but nobody would use coal if they could avoid it. Some until the late 19th century. But using sunlight energy captured during the tree’s life could not compete for long with mining ancient sunlight trapped in coal that was collected over tens of millions of years, even if nobody initially knew how coal was formed. Even today, the British Isles’ grassy hills provide austere evidence of the rampant deforestation that those lands have yet to recover from. That the British Isles have any woods at all is a testament to using fossil fuels to power the Industrial Revolution.

on present bathymetry of the Bering Strait and eustatic sea ..

In 1750, only 5% of England’s pig iron was produced with coke, but by 1800, with and the continuing rising price of charcoal, British pig iron production was 150,000-200,000 metric tons annually, and almost all was coke-smelted. It was ten times greater than annual production in the 18th century’s first half, and the steep ascent began in the 1770s. In the first decade of the 19th century, it doubled again. During the 18th century, British coal production increased five-fold, to more than 15 million metric tons, and it doubled again by 1830. It took ten times its weight in fuel to produce ten tons of iron, and twenty times for copper. One reason for iron’s relative “cheapness,” energy-wise, is that life processes into oxides. In 1900, the British produced five million tons of pig iron annually, the USA produced twice as much, and Germany produced more than six million tons. In 2011, the UK produced only seven million tons of pig iron, China produced nearly a hundred times as much, and , which was several thousand times what England, the early leader in industrialization, produced two centuries earlier. In 2008, global coal production was estimated at 5.8 billion metric tons, which was nearly 400 times what the UK mined in 1800.

Robert McGhee, head of thescientific section of the Archaeological Survey of Canada, stands aloneon a desolate stretch of stony beach.
Turf and sods reinforced with woodprovidedbuilding materials south of timber line--a combination that time hasreducedto almost invisible mounds.

The Bering Strait and The Land Bridge

All of those hard-to-believe events aside, I became a student of genius while under my first professional mentor’s tutelage. The sold me on him (as well as that voice leading me to him), but when I to help rebuild his effort, it quickly became evident that I was learning from another world-class genius, and I avidly studied his efforts. As far as I know, is the greatest attempt yet made to bring alternative energy to the American marketplace. He probably did his most interesting work before I met him. He invented the , and his were awe-inspiring. Dennis was an untrained businessman, but his ability to erect a disruptive energy technology company with no capital and create the entire process, from developing the technology to building it, marketing it, and installing it, is the best that I have ever seen or heard of, and his public image rarely even touched upon his unparalleled talent in that area. Yet those abilities paled beside his other qualifications, which . That voice knew what it was doing in leading me to Dennis, but playing Indiana Jones’s sidekick was not an easy ride, and I have generally rejected Dennis’s entreaties to rejoin him after I . Even as I write this, I know that our story seems ridiculously fanciful, but it all happened and more, with connections and events I am not at liberty to publicly disclose that makes journey resemble . As dramatic as those events were, our focus was always on bringing FE to the world.

The Indians migrated to the Western Hemisphere from northern Asia about20,000 B.C., or earlier, VIA THE BERING STRAIT or the Aleutian Islands.

The Bering Strait flow may also have a ..

Mass spectrometers measure the mass of atoms and molecules, and have become increasingly refined since they were . Today, samples that can only be seen with microscopes can be tested and measured down to a billionth of a gram. Elements have different numbers of protons and neutrons in the nuclei of their atoms, and each nuclear variation of an element is called an . Unstable isotopes decay into smaller elements (also called “”). Scientific investigations have determined that radioactive decay rates and are primarily governed by the dynamics in a decaying atom. The dates determined by radioactive dating have been correlated to other observed processes and the data has become increasingly robust over the years.

Some of the North American tribes must have come from Siberia -- crossing over the Bering Strait into the New World.

Who were the First Villagers in the Bering Strait

The genetic testing that has been performed on humanity in the past generation has shown that the founder group’s pattern of migration was to continually spread out, and once the original settlement covered the continents, people did not move much at all, at least until Europe began conquering the world (and there were some ). There is little sign of warfare in those early days of migration, and the leading hypothesis is that people moved to the next valley rather than be close enough to fight each other. Any conflict would have been easily resolved by moving farther out, where more easily killed animals lived. Also, in those virgin continents, people need not have roamed far to obtain food. Today, an !Kung woman will carry her child more than 7,000 kilometers before the child can walk for himself/herself. If an !Kung woman bears twins, it is her duty to pick which child to murder, because she cannot afford to carry two. That demonstrates the limitations of today’s hunter-gatherer lifestyle, but in those halcyonic days of invading virgin continents (which had to be the Golden Age of the Hunter-Gatherer), those kinds of practices probably waned and bands grew fast. When they they split, and the new group moved to new lands where the animals, again, never saw people before. Unlike the case with humans, there would not have been a grapevine so that animals told their neighbors about the new super-predator. The first time that those megafauna saw humans was probably their last time. It is very likely, just as with all predators for all time, and as can be seen with historical hunting events such or , that those bands soon took to killing animals, harvesting the best parts, and moving on. To them it would not have been a “blitzkrieg,” but more like kids in candy stores. After a few thousand years of grabbing meat whenever the fancy took them, or perhaps less, those halcyonic days were over as the far coasts of Australia were reached and the easy meat was gone. When that land bridge formed to Tasmania about 43 kya, people crossed and were able to , until all the megafauna was gone on Tasmania. They also may have worked their way through the food chain, in which the first kills were the true mother lode. Nobody even deigned to raise a spear at anything less than a until they were gone. Then they started killing smaller prey, which eventually did wise up and were harder to kill, so humans had to work at it again and the brief golden age was over. The as they shaped the new continent to their liking, maybe recreating the savanna conditions that they left in Africa, may have also been used to flush out animals if they began to avoid humans.