The Bering Straight Land Bridge - University of …
25/04/2017 · The Bering Straight Land Bridge
A careful estimate as of 2013 determined that humanity has reduced Earth’s plant-based biomass by more than a third since the beginnings of agriculture. Humanity certainly could not have industrialized by using wood. Arguments making the case that deforestation was not why coal was adopted in England are shaky and also irrelevant to the fact that England could not have industrialized with wood. Iron operations regularly shut down during England’s early industrial history due to wood shortages. The economics of coal were evident to even imperial Romans, but nobody would use coal if they could avoid it. Some until the late 19th century. But using sunlight energy captured during the tree’s life could not compete for long with mining ancient sunlight trapped in coal that was collected over tens of millions of years, even if nobody initially knew how coal was formed. Even today, the British Isles’ grassy hills provide austere evidence of the rampant deforestation that those lands have yet to recover from. That the British Isles have any woods at all is a testament to using fossil fuels to power the Industrial Revolution.
on present bathymetry of the Bering Strait and eustatic sea ..
In 1750, only 5% of England’s pig iron was produced with coke, but by 1800, with and the continuing rising price of charcoal, British pig iron production was 150,000-200,000 metric tons annually, and almost all was coke-smelted. It was ten times greater than annual production in the 18th century’s first half, and the steep ascent began in the 1770s. In the first decade of the 19th century, it doubled again. During the 18th century, British coal production increased five-fold, to more than 15 million metric tons, and it doubled again by 1830. It took ten times its weight in fuel to produce ten tons of iron, and twenty times for copper. One reason for iron’s relative “cheapness,” energy-wise, is that life processes into oxides. In 1900, the British produced five million tons of pig iron annually, the USA produced twice as much, and Germany produced more than six million tons. In 2011, the UK produced only seven million tons of pig iron, China produced nearly a hundred times as much, and , which was several thousand times what England, the early leader in industrialization, produced two centuries earlier. In 2008, global coal production was estimated at 5.8 billion metric tons, which was nearly 400 times what the UK mined in 1800.