Broadening the Base of Treatment for Alcohol Problems.

This model assumes people have been socialized. What about individuals who have not been socialized? In the past, psychologists and psychiatrists diagnosed some individuals as psychopaths or sociopaths. Whether such diagnostic categories are still useful or appropriate is debatable; the current tendency is to use the term “antisocial personality.” Folklore and clinical observation suggest that antisocial people are able to lie and deceive successfully because they have undeveloped social consciences and no feelings of guilt. A few experiments have been carried out with such persons using the polygraph; all of them are controversial and the results are contradictory. Whether antisocial people turn out to be better or worse than normal people at hiding and detecting deception, the practical consequences are not clear. It is doubtful, for example, that an intelligence agent would want to trust a person so diagnosed, even if such a person could successfully deceive the enemy.

Broadening the Base of Treatment for Alcohol Problems.

Broadening the Base of Treatment for Alcohol Problems.

Broadening the Base of Treatment for Alcohol Problems.

Similarly, the Gaia Hypothesis is interpreted by some in a purely "functional" integration sense (K. Boulding, 1990) and by others within a spiritual framework, suggesting "intentionality" and an "intelligence" behind the way Gaia operates. (Ruether, 1992; Badiner, 1990) James Davies, who has written various books popularizing the New Physics, also asks: "Why are the laws of nature mathematical?" and why can nature everywhere be explained by mathematics, thereby allowing science to understand nature? To Davies, the fact that we can study and understand the universe at all, and that science is even possible at all, implies that the universe is not a random event, but rather that intentionality and purpose are behind its creation and design. (Davies, 1992) Other scientists also note the extremely low statistical probability of life--including self-conscious, self-aware, intelligent life (as represented by humans)--evolving on earth, which to some scientists implies an intentionality or purpose behind our physical universe, its creation and the design of its evolution. The fact that life itself seems to evolve towards ever more intelligent self awareness--whether in human form on earth or other possible forms elsewhere in the universe--implies a designer behind the design to some scientists. In summary, new holistic, scientific paradigms are emerging across a variety of fields, and increasing numbers of people are seeing connections between the spiritual and material aspects of these paradigms.

Broadening the Base of Treatment for Alcohol Problems.

It should be noted that many differences between the YATS study and the MTF make responses to the two surveys not directly comparable. For example, although both ask youth to rate 24 items, most of the items are not comparable in wording. Thus, each item is being rated in relation to a different set of issues that provide a comparative referent or framework. Degree of endorsement, as well as the rank order based on importance ratings, could thus differ, depending on the constellation of all other dimensions that are rated. Even referencing the same issues, slight differences in item wording can yield response variation. In addition, the age base is somewhat different. Aggregate data, from which the percentages in the text are derived, are based on 16-21-year-olds in 1999 for the YATS; for seniors in high school (mostly age 17 or 18) in 1994–1998 for the MTF.

Broadening the Base of Treatment for Alcohol Problems.

Consider, for example, the kind of plausibility arguments that have been brought to bear on the various interpretations of quantum theory (e.g., those related to the measurement problem). These arguments go to the heart of conceptual issues that were central to the development of the theory. Indeed, many of these issues were first raised by the scientists who made the greatest contributions to the theory's development, in the attempt to get a conceptual hold on the theory and its implications. Such arguments seem to play a legitimate role in the assessment of alternative views when distinguishing evidence has yet to be found.

Broadening the Base of Treatment for Alcohol Problems.

The typical dyadic situation is one in which the two individuals interact and each adapts his or her behavior in the light of what the other person says and does. In contrast, all the research on the leakage hypothesis has been conducted within a relatively static, noninteractive mode. Typically, the detector makes judgments in response to a videotaped presentation. The detector cannot continue and ask further questions, nor can the deceiver adjust his or her behavior on the basis of feedback from the detector. But this is just the context in which ordinary dyadic communication occurs.

Broadening the Base of Treatment for Alcohol Problems.

In the probabilistic logic of evidential support the evaluation of a hypothesis on evidence is represented by its posterior probability, The posterior probability represents the net plausibility of the hypothesis resulting from the evidence cn·entogether with whatever plausibility considerations are relevant, which should be included within b. The likelihoods are the means through which evidence contributes to posterior probabilities. But another factor, the prior probability of the hypothesis based on considerations expressed within b, also makes a contribution. It represents the weight of all non-evidential plausibility considerations on which posterior probabilities may depend. It turns out that posterior probabilities depend only on the values of (ratios of) likelihoods and on the values of (ratios of) prior probabilities.