Inhibition of Cell Wall Biosynthesis

Wu AM, Rihouey C, Seveno M, et al. (2009) The Arabidopsis IRX10 and IRX10‐LIKE glycosyltransferases are critical for glucuronoxylan biosynthesis during secondary cell wall formation. Plant Journal 57: 718–731.

Bacterial cell wall synthesis - YouTube

Bacterial cell wall synthesis ..

Biosynthesis of Bacterial Cell Walls | SpringerLink

Although most bacteria have a reasonably simple morphology in being round (cocci) or rods (bacilli), we observe a remarkable difference in the spatial organisation of the cell wall synthesis machinery. Many rod-shaped bacteria position theiralong the lateral axis of the cell. This is true for Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, but also for the Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis.

Cell Wall Biosynthesis - eLS: Essential for Life Science

Bacterial morphogenesis and cytokinesis are accomplished by highly complex protein machinery that catalyses the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. The peptidoglycan (or murein) is a unique structure to bacterial cells and therefore a prime target of many potent antibiotics.

Cosgrove DJ (1997) Assembly and enlargement of the primary cell wall in plants. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 13: 171–201.
one of the steps in cell wall biosynthesis.

Biosynthesis of Bacterial Cell Walls - ResearchGate

Plant cell walls encase the plant cells and provide many structural and functional roles. Cell walls are complex structures consisting mainly of polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin), glycoproteins and phenolic compounds (lignin). Most plant cell wall polymers are synthesised from ‘activated’ precursors by the action of transferases. Cellulose is synthesised at the plasma membrane (PM) by a large complex moving in the plane of PM and extruding cellulose chains into the wall. The hemicelluloses are synthesised in the endomembrane system by resident glycosyl transferase enzymes and transported to the wall. These individual components are then cross‐linked and assembled into the complex matrix structure that comprises functional cell walls. Woody cell walls also contain lignin. Lignin is synthesised in the wall by oxidative coupling of individual monomeric subunits.

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Plant cell wall: structure and biosynthesis | HSTalks

Great variation occurs in the composition of the sugars in the Osidechain between species and even strains of Gram-negative bacteria. Atleast20 different sugars are known to occur and many of these sugars arecharacteristicallyunique dideoxyhexoses, which occur in nature only in Gram-negative cellwalls. Variations in sugar content of the O polysaccharide contributetothe wide variety of antigenic types of and and presumably other strains of Gram-negative species. Particularsugarsin the structure, especially the terminal ones, confer immunologicalspecificityof the O antigen, in addition to "smoothness" (colony morphology) ofthestrain. Loss of the O specific region by mutation results in the strainbecoming a "rough" (colony morphology) or R strain.

Biosynthesis of the Peptidoglycan of Bacterial Cell Walls ..

What inhibits bacterial cell wall ..

Since their clinical introduction more than 50 years ago, β-lactam antibiotics have been essential drugs in combating bacterial infections. To date, β-lactams constitute approximately 60% of all clinically used antibiotics. These antibiotics interfere with cell wall biosynthesis. All bacteria, with very few exceptions, have a cross-linked cell wall (, ). The cross-linking takes place as the last step in biosynthesis of cell wall, a reaction that is catalyzed by bacterial transpeptidases (, –), enzymes that rely on an active-site serine for their reactions. The activated serine of transpeptidase attacks the carbonyl of the penultimate -Ala of the peptidoglycan precursor, with concomitant departure of the terminal -Ala, to give rise to an acyl-enzyme intermediate (Fig. A). An amine from the side chain of another peptidoglycan (diaminopimelate, modified lysine, or ornithine derivative) reacts with the ester of the acyl-enzyme intermediate to give the cross-linked species.