and classification of species of bacteria include DNA-DNA ..

DA replication is initiated at discrete sequences called origin (ori) of replication to which DNA polymerase and accessory proteins bind and copy both strands, as predicted by the semi-conservative replication model (Fig. 2B). In contrast to unidirectional RNA synthesis, DNA replication in most genomes occurs bidirectionally (Fig. 2B). This results in both continuous and discontinuous synthesis of the same strand on two sides of the origin of replication. Some circular genomes, such as mitochondrial DNA, are replicated unidirectionally. In these cases, replication starting at the ori proceeds continuously in the 5′ ^ 3′ direction, followed by discontinuous synthesis of the complementary strand. Termination occurs at the same site as the ori after the circle is completely traversed. During replication of the mitochondrial genome, elongation of the continuous strand pauses at some distance from the ori, resulting in a bubble (6 structure) structure named a D-(displacement) loop (Fig. 4A).

Stabilizes mating bacteria during DNA transfer by conjugation: ..

Bacteria can also undergo conjugation in which two separate bacteria exchange pieces of DNA.

From DNA to RNA to protein, how does it work?

: Bacteria are found almost everywhere on Earth, including in the seas and lakes, on all continents (including Antarctica), in the , and in tissues of plants and animals.

Recombinant DNA technology in the synthesis ..

Thus, the genetic code is determined by specific nuleotide basesequences in chromosomal DNA; the amino acid sequence in a proteindetermines the properties and function of the protein; and sequence ofsugars in bacterial lipopolysaccharides determines unique cell wallproperties for pathogens. The primary structure of amacromolecule will drive its function, and differences withinthe primary structure of biological macromoleculesaccounts for the immense diversity of life

(DNA polymerase α does not have the 3' to 5' exonuclease activity needed for proofreading.)
Answer to Why is DNA synthesis expected to be more complex in eukaryotes than in bacteria

Nucleic Acids - Biology Junction

Small organisms (e.g., bacteria), as well as plasmids and many viruses, have only one ori sequence per cellular genome (4.7 x 106 nucleotide pairs in E. coli), which is often an uninterrupted DNA molecule (Figs. 4A and 4B). In complex organisms, with a much larger genome size (~3 x 109 nucleotide pairs for mammals), which is divided into multiple discrete chromosomes, thousands of ori sequence are present (Fig. 4C), although not all of them may be active in all cells; this requires that replication be regulated and coordinated.

DNA replication rate of DNA polymerase II (slow-dna repair) Bacteria Escherichia coli

THE BACTERIA Metabolism-Antibiotic Sensitivity

The maintenance of genomic integrity in the form of the organism-specific nucleotide sequence of the genome is essential for preservation of the species during propagation. This requires an extremely high fidelity of DNA replication. Errors in RNA synthesis may be tolerated at a significantly higher level because RNAs have a limited half-life, even in nondividing cells, and are redundant. In contrast, any error in DNA sequence is perpetuated in the future, as there is only one or two copies of the genome per cell under most circumstances. Obviously, all organisms have a finite rate of mutation, which may be necessary for evolution. Genetic errors are one likely cause of such mutations. Inactivation of a vital protein function by mutation of its coding sequence will cause cell death. However, mutations that affect nonessential functions could be tolerated. Some of these mutations can still lead to change in the phenotype, which in extreme cases can cause pathological effects. In other cases, these may be responsible for susceptibility to diseases. In many cases, however, such mutations appear to be innocuous and are defined as an allelic polymorphism. The mammalian genome appears to have polymorphism in one out of several hundred base pairs. Such mutations obviously arose during the evolution and subsequent species propagation.

26/01/2013 · DNA synthesis means creating or "writing" sequences of DNA, usually for genetic engineering

DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis | Tocris Bioscience

Replication requires a large number of proteins, including the holoenzyme of Pol III which includes, in addition to the catalytic polymerase cores, ten or more pairs of other subunits. The polymerase complex appears to have a dimeric asymmetric structure in order to replicate simultaneously two strands with opposite polarity. The continuous leading strand synthesis should be processive without interruption, because periodic RNA primer synthesis is not necessary once the leading DNA strand synthesis is initiated. On the other hand, the discontinuous lagging strand synthesis should not be processive, because repeated synthesis of RNA primers is required to initiate synthesis of each Okazaki fragment. The Pol III holoenzyme appears to assemble in a stepwise fashion, with its key p-subunit dimer acting as a sliding clamp based on its X-ray crystal-lographic structure of a ring surrounding the DNA. This clamp is loaded on DNA by the y-complex, accompanied by ATP hydrolysis. The dimeric structure of the replication complex is maintained by the dimeric subunit of the holoenzyme. The p-clamp slides on the duplex DNA template and thus promotes processivity. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the sliding clamp homolog in eukaryotic cells and is also used in SV40 replication.