It takes 1024 protons to bring about one revolution of the motor in

The orientation of the Americas meant that few innovations traveled between continental civilizations. The only pack animals in the Americas, llamas and alpacas, never made it past South America before the European invasion. But there was a continual migration of innovations between China, Europe, and the Fertile Crescent. That is thought to be partly why Eurasian cultures became technologically advanced over those of sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas, and Australia.

and find to carry out chemosynthesis.

What types of organisms carry out chemosynthesis?
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Example of an organism that would carry out chemosynthesis.

Because of the stupendous energy demands of flight, birds not only have the superior air sac system for breathing, but their , the cell’s energy-generation centers, are far more efficient than mammalian mitochondria. Parrots in captivity can , scientists have noted an , and scientists may discover that wild albatrosses live to be 100 or more, when their tagging programs get that old. The may explain bird longevity, as the efficient mitochondria of birds . The theory is controversial and will be for many years, but I think that an engine analogy can help. A bird is a piece of high-performance biological technology, and when operating at peak output it puts all land-bound animals to shame. But a bird’s metabolism is usually in its slack state, only maximized during flight. Simply put, a bird has a great energy capacity that is rarely used to its fullest. It is like a high-performance engine that rarely runs near its . Such engines will last far longer than those regularly running near redline. High-performance technology that usually “loafs” in its slack state and is rarely taxed is expensive and long-lasting. The increased investment in superior technology allows for high performance and long life. High-quality technology is more economical in the long run, if the initial investment can be afforded.

etc.) autotrophs carry out chemosynthesis.

Recognizably modern birds existed by the end-Cretaceous, and . Small pterosaurs called first flew about 150 mya, about the time that birds appeared. The skies were getting crowded by the late-Cretaceous, although birds and pterosaurs seem to . Modern birds survived the end-Cretaceous extinction partly because they found refugia in swampy margins, burrows, and holes in trees, such as those that woodpeckers can create.

these organisms are out competed by phototrophs and You can only upload files.
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Where do bacteria that carry out chemosynthesis live?

After the dinosaurs, empty niches filled with animals that looked remarkably like dinosaurs, if we squinted. Most large browsing weighed in the five-to-seven metric ton range. By the late Paleocene, appeared in North America and China and attained about rhinoceros size, to be supplanted in the Eocene by larger , and in Oligocene Eurasia lived the largest land mammals of all time, including the truly dinosaur-sized . The largest yet found weighed 16 metric tons and was about five meters tall at the shoulders and eight meters in length. Even a might have thought twice before attacking one of those. It took about , and for the succeeding 40 million years, the maximum size remained fairly constant. Scientists hypothesize that mammalian growth to dinosaurian size was , including continent size and climate, and .

Where Do Bacteria That Carry Out Chemosynthesis

My astronaut colleague investigated the UFO phenomenon early in his adventures on the and immediately after refusing an "offer" to perform classified UFO research for the American military. It became evident that the UFO and free energy issues were conjoined. A faction of the global elite to a close fellow traveler, which included free energy and antigravity technologies. My astronaut colleague was involved with the that some around me were, who invented a solid-state free energy prototype that not only produced a million times the energy that went into it, but it . I eventually understood the larger context of our efforts and encountered numerous fellow travelers; they reported similar experiences, of having their technologies seized or otherwise suppressed, of being incarcerated and/or surviving murder attempts, and other outrages inflicted by global elites as they maintained their tyrannical grip over the world economy and, hence, humanity. It was no conspiracy theory, but what my fellow travelers and I learned at great personal cost, which was regularly fatal.

Where do bacteria that carry out chemosynthesis - …

White science still has almost nothing to say about the nature of consciousness. However, Black Science (covert, largely privatized, and the same province where that ) is somewhat familiar with the nature of consciousness and considers it to be far more than a byproduct of chemistry. The assumption that the entire universe is a of consciousness is not only by White Science, but is probably a foundational assumption of Black Science mystics.