Help on how to do atom economy calculations.

Underlying the concept of green chemistry is the desire to produce chemicals that are as useful as possible whilst also being both safe for us to use and safe for the environment. Safety refers to both flammability and toxicity. For example, polymers have been developed which are much less flammable than the more well known polymers but also retain properties such as toughness. They must be able to absorb severe impacts without cracking and breaking. One such polymer is polyphenylsulfone which has the formula:

how to you calculate % yield from a chemical reaction

What is the formula to calculate the 'atom economy' of a chemical reaction?

Clark JH. Chemistry goes green. Nat Chem 2009;1:12-3.

You need to be able to calculate the atom economy of a reaction to form a desired product from the balanced equation and perhaps explain why a particular reaction pathway is chosen to produce a specified product given appropriate information such as atom economy, yield, rate, equilibrium position and usefulness of by-products.


many of the atoms of the reactants not being incorporated into the desired product (ibuprofen) but into byproducts.

The BHC Company has developed and implemented a new greener industrial synthesis of ibuprofen that is only three steps (U.S.

Ahluwalia VK, Kidwai M. New trends in green chemistry. Springer, Berlin; 2004. p. 2-4.

2011-05-23 · Full Report: Synthesis of Aspirin ..

2. Atom Economy
Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product.

the manufacture of a chemical like aspirin

6. Design for Energy Efficiency
Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognised for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. If possible, synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure.

Different Methods Of Synthesizing Aspirin - …

% purity, % percentage & theoretical yield, dilution of solutions (and diagrams of apparatus), water of crystallisation, quantity of reactants required, atom economy

Hjeresen DL, Schutt DL, Boese JM. Green chemistry and education. J Chem Educ 2000;77:1543-7.

Green chemistry - Essential Chemical Industry

Online practice exam chemistry CALCULATIONS and solved problems for KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE CHEMISTRY and basic starter chemical calculations for A level AS/A2/IB courses. These revision notes and practice questions on how to do atom economy chemical calculations and worked examples should prove useful for the new AQA, Edexcel and OCR GCSE (9–1) chemistry science courses.

Green chemistry, Organic syntheses, Solvents, Laboratory, Reduce pollution

The Synthesis of Salicylic acid and Aspirin - …

Saikia L, Baruah JM, Thakur AJ. A rapid, convenient, solventless green approach for the synthesis of oximes using grindstone chemistry. Org Med Chem Lett 2011;1:12.

Monograph on Green Chemistry. Laboratory Experiments. Green Chemistry Task Force Committee, DST, India; 2011. p. 1-79.

Start studying WM synthesis of Salicylic acid and aspirin

The acceptance that the chemical industry must not adversely affect the environment for future generations has been the driving force behind the development of green chemistry. This is not a separate branch of chemistry, but an approach that permeates every stage of process development.