Identification is the first step in managing aquatic weeds.
Geographic distribution of major vegetation types.
Coupled terrestrial–aquatic models express the understanding of processes relevant to specific land-cover decisions, permit exploration of relevant tradeoffs (Antle and Capalbo 2001, Bennett et al. 2009), and are essential in understanding the response of ecosystem dynamics to changes in both climate and land cover. Results from PnET–FrAMES provide a measure of the potential impact of each land-cover scenario and each climate scenario on different ecosystem service indicators. As regional managers have little influence over climate change and because we are currently on a higher emission trajectory (Pachauri et al. 2014), managers should consider potential land cover in conjunction with the higher emissions climate scenario to guide future planning. Projections from PnET–FrAMES suggest that infilled development (Community) scenarios exhibit two types of paradigms with respect to specific aquatic environmental indicators under a high emission future (Fig. 7). The three land-cover scenarios with limited expansion of the residential footprint (Constant, Small Community Food, Large Community Wild) show smaller levels of Fish Habitat Loss and Water Shortfalls than the dispersed buildout (Backyard). The Large Community Wildlands scenario represents a doubling of population similar to Backyard scenario, but has much lower environmental detriment based on these two indicators. However, the Large Community Wildlands scenario does show increased impact on the Nitrogen Export indicator (more point sources) and Flood Risk indicator (more people along large river corridors) relative to Backyard, suggesting that there are tradeoffs that must be further managed under an infilled paradigm.
Photosynthesis and Respiration in Aquatic ..
(Compare also the geographic distribution of soil types shown in Figure 4.13 with the distribution of vegetation types shown in Figure 4.1.)
Once a mature soil has been formed, a disturbance such as the removal of vegetation by fire or human activities often results in gradual sequential changes in the organisms comprising the community.