Modern Fluoroorganic Chemistry: Synthesis, Reactivity, ..

The prediction of the ozone-depleting effect of CFCs in 1974 [20] and the subsequent occurrence of the hole in the ozone layer over the Antarctic in 1980 enforced a drastic reorientation of industrial fluoroorganic chemistry. With the Montreal Protocol in 1987, the phasing-out of most CFCs was initiated. Some of the refrigerants and cleaning chemicals could be replaced by other fluorine-containing chemicals (for example, hydrofluorocarbons, s and fluorinated ethers), but in general the fluorochemical industry had to refocus on other fields of application, for example, fluoropolymers, fluorosurfactants, and fluorinated intermediates for pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals [19]. A major and rapidly growing market segment is fluorine-containing fine chemicals for use as intermediates in pharmaceuticals and agrochemistry. Another application in which fluorochemicals have started to play an increasingly dominant role in the last few years is the electronics industry. Relevant compounds include plasma etching gases, cleaning fluids, specialized fluoropolymers, fluorinated photoresists for manufacturing integrated circuits by the currently emerging 157 nm photolithography, and liquid crystals for application in liquid crystal displays (s).

Kirsch, P., Modern Fluoroorganic Chemistry: Synthesis, Reactivity…

Modern Fluoroorganic Chemistry: Synthesis, Reactivity, Applications; Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, 2004
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Modern Fluoroorganic Chemistry: Synthesis, Reactivity ..

Because of hazards and difficulties in handling highly reactive and corrosive reagents, organofluorine chemistry remained relatively undeveloped until 1920’s.

Modern Fluoroorganic Chemistry Synthesis, Reactivity

Difluorocarbene is a versatile, reactive intermediate for use in organic synthesis. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in difluorocarbene chemistry owing to the increasing demand for various fluorinated molecules. Not only the substrate scope for some classical difluorocarbene reagents has been largely expanded, but also new and environmentally friendly difluorocarbene reagents for difluoromethylation and -difluorocyclization have been developed. This review summarizes the difluoromethylation, -difluorocyclopropanation, -difluorocyclopropenation, -difluoroolefination, and trifluoromethylation achieved in the last decade using both the classical and the new difluorocarbene sources.1 Introduction2 Difluorocarbene Sources3 Difluoromethylation3.1 O-Difluoromethylation3.2 S-Difluoromethylation3.3 N-Difluoromethylation3.4 Difluoromethylation of Ambident N,O- and N,S-Nucleophiles 3.5 Se- and P-Difluoromethylation3.6 C-Difluoromethylation3.7 Sn-Difluoromethylation4 -Difluorocyclization4.1 -Difluorocyclopropanation4.2 -Difluorocyclopropenation5 -Difluoroolefination and Related Reactions6 Trifluoromethylation7 Miscellaneous8 Conclusions

Kirsch (Ed.), Modern Fluoroorganic Chemistry, Synthesis, Reactivity, Applications, Wiley, Weinheim, 2004.
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include the application of fluoroorganic chemistry, ..

Although fluorine itself is the most reactive of all elements, some fluoroorganic compounds have chemical inertness like that of the noble gases. They sometimes cause ecological problems not because of their reactivity but because of the lack of it, making them persistent in Nature on a geological time scale.

and is one of the reasons why fluoroorganic compounds ..

History The Basic Materials The Unique Properties of Organofluorine Compounds PART I: Synthesis of Complex Organofluorine Compounds INTRODUCTION OF FLUORINE Perfluorination and Selective Direct Fluorination Electrochemical Fluorination (ECF) Nucleophilic Fluorination Synthesis and Reactivity of Fluoroaromatic Compounds Transformations of Functional Groups "Electrophilic" Fluorination PERFLUOROALKYLATION Radical Perfluoroalkylation Nucleophilic Perfluoroalkylation "Electrophilic" Perfluoroalkylation Difluorocarbene and Fluorinated Cyclopropanes SELECTED FLUORINATED STRUCTURES AND REACTION TYPES Difluoromethylation and Halodifluoromethylation The Perfluoroalkoxy Group The Perfluoroalkylthio Group and Sulfur-Based Super-Electron-Withdrawing Groups The Pentafluorosulfanyl Group and Related Structures THE CHEMISTRY OF HIGHLY FLUORINATED OLEFINS Fluorinated Polymethines Fluorinated Enol Ethers as Synthetic Building Blocks PART II: Fluorous Chemistry FLUOROUS CHEMISTRY Fluorous Biphase Catalysis FLUOROUS SYNTHESIS AND COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY Fluorous Synthesis Separation on Fluorous Stationary Phases Fluorous Concepts in Combinatorial Chemistry PART III: Applications of Organofluorine Compounds HALOFLUOROCARBONS, HYDROFLUOROCARBONS, AND RELATED COMPOUNDS Polymers and Lubricants Applications in the Electronics Industry Fluorinated Dyes Liquid Crystals for Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays Fluorine in Organic Electronics PHARMACEUTICALS AND OTHER BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS Why Fluorinated Pharmaceuticals?

modern fluoroorganic chemistry ..

Welch, The Effects of Selective Fluorination on Reactivity in Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry, ACS Symposium Series 456, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC 1991.