Definition of hypothesis, definition at Economic Glossary

Several experts often argue the fate of developing and poor countries through the viewpoint of EKC. As EKC shows that economic growth is the only possible way to retard deforestation when will they achieve enough income per capita to reach turning point? However, Munasinghe (, ) has hypothesized a tunnel through the EKC which will help developing countries to attain a lower turning point by adopting measures from the developed ones (). He has shown three possible paths of economic development aligned with the environmental damages. Among them, an economy should look for an optimal path through which it will avoid severe or moderate distortions of its environment ().

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And if it exists, to what extent does it affect second language proficiency.

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Economists have flirted with a less substantive characterization ofindividual motivation and with a more expansive view of the domain ofeconomics. In his influential monograph, An Essay on the Nature andSignificance of Economic Science, Lionel Robbins defined economicsas “the science which studies human behavior as a relationshipbetween ends and scarce means which have alternative uses”(1932, p. 15). According to Robbins, economics is not concerned withproduction, exchange, distribution, or consumption as such. It isinstead concerned with an aspect of all human action. Although Robbins'definition helps one to understand efforts to apply economic concepts,models, and techniques to other subject matters such as the analysis ofvoting behavior and legislation, it seems evident that economicsmaintains its connection to a traditional domain.

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The aim is to emphasize the significance of abduction in order to illustrate the problem-solving process and to propose a unified epistemological model of scientific discovery.

We evaluate Lewis's claims by applying standard econometric procedures to data on player productivity and compensation from 1999 to 2004.
As always, the hypothesis as a whole consists not only of this abstract model and its ideal types but also of a set of rules, mostly

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Applying Popper's views on falsification literally would bedestructive. Not only neoclassical economics, but all known economictheories would be condemned as unscientific, and there would be no wayto discriminate among economic theories. One major problem generalproblem with a naive reading of Popper's views is that one cannotderive testable implications from theories by themselves. To derivetestable implications, one also needs subsidiary assumptionsconcerning distributions, measurement devices, proxies for unmeasuredvariables, the absence of various interferences, and so forth. This isthe so-called “Duhem-Quine problem” (Duhem 1906, Quine1953, Cross 1982). These problems arise generally, and Popper proposesthat they be solved by a methodological decision to regard a failureof the deduced testable implication to be a failure of the theory. Butin economics the subsidiary assumptions are dubious and in many casesknown to be false. Making the methodological decision that Popperrequires is unreasonable and would lead one to reject all economictheories.

Economic development and the Rights Hypothesis - …

Imre Lakatos (1970), who was for most of his philosophical career afollower of Popper, offers a broadly Popperian solution to thisproblem. Lakatos insists that testing is always comparative. Whentheories face empirical difficulties, as they always do, one attemptsto modify them. Scientifically acceptable (in Lakatos' terminology“theoretically progressive”) modifications must always havesome additional testable implications and are thus not purely adhoc. If some of the new predictions are confirmed, then themodification is “empirically progressive,” and one hasreason to reject the unmodified theory and to employ the new theory,regardless of how unsuccessful in general either theory may be. Thoughprogress may be hard to come by, Lakatos' views do not have the samedestructive implications as Popper's. Lakatos appears to solve theproblem of how to appraise mainstream economic theory by arguing thatwhat matters is empirical progress or retrogression rather thanempirical success or failure. Lakatos' views have thus been moreattractive to economic methodologists than Popper's.

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Cubic models have given optimistic results for EKC in some cases, while most Quadratic models have not. In many observations, deforestation has not shown any supporting evidence for the full trajectory of the EKC (, , ). The reason for this may be that the per capita income of the observed countries is at the first stage of EKC, when degradation increases with increasing income per capita. According to Koop & Tole (), empirical results indicate that a significant EKC exists in the simple regression, but is gradually lost when the conditions are freed up. Tests also strongly indicate that less restrictive specifications are favored by the data. However, Bhattarai & Hammig () conducted another study in Africa with less than optimistic results. They found a peak at income per capita of US$ 5000. However, the cases which were not found proven to have the statistically significant full trajectory of EKC, might be due to presence of income per capita in the first-stage of EKC. In the RE model, lack of incorporating some important determinants might cause the deviation.