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Here we test our hypothesis and investigate how the deletion of TROL and membrane detachment of FNR from this anchoring site influence partitioning of electrons beyond PSI. We posit that TROL-FNR interaction presents the branching point between electron-conserving and electron-dissipating pathways. We monitored ROS formation and subsequent induction of plant stress-relief responses. We establish that without TROL, light-dependent O2.− generation is reduced, while the generation of other ROS is enhanced. Most significantly, O2.− formation induced by MV is diminished in chloroplasts lacking TROL, when plants are pre-acclimated to dark and growth light (GL). We propose that other Fd-dependent pathways downstream of PSI and different from the LET become dominant by the dynamic detachment of FNR form TROL, thus suggesting novel mechanism of photosynthesis regulation. Alternatively, efficient scavenging of O2.− by FNR-dependent pathways can be envisaged.

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We haveinvestigated the effect of light intensity on these alternativepathways.

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Respiration refers to the metabolism of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide. In it is a positive term, a process vital to life. But photorespiration is an entirely negative term because it represents a severe loss to the process of using light energy in photosynthetic organisms to fix carbon for subsequent carbohydrate synthesis. By leading to the loss of up to half of the carbon that has been fixed at the expense of light energy, photorespiration undoes the work of photosynthesis.

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Under moderate temperature conditions when C3 plants have sufficient water, the supply of carbon dioxide is abundant and photorespiration is not a problem. The CO2 concentration of the atmosphere as of 2004 was about 380 ppm and this CO2 freely diffuses through the stomata of leaves and across the membranes of the while water diffuses out through the stomata. But during hot and dry conditions, the stomata close to prevent excessive water loss and the continuing fixation of carbon in the dramatically reduces the relative concentration of CO2. When it reaches a critical level of about 50 ppm the rubisco stops fixing CO2 and begins to fix O2 instead. Even though the detoured process feeds some PGA back into the cycle, the photorespiration process causes rubisco to operate at only about 25% of its optimal rate.

All 3 forms of photosynthesis are based on two pathways.

Isaac Newton’s The Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica is widely considered one of the most important scientific books ever written, and for good reason. It has been studied, referenced, and quoted countless times in the 300-plus years since it was first published. Yet it contains a mathematical error that nobody noticed for centuries! That’s how fixated on authority and personality worship so-called “objective” scientists can be. Oh, and did I say: it was a 23-year-old student from Chicago named Robert Garisto who discovered the mistake!

The alternative pathways of photosynthesis using the …

The connection to hot and dry conditions comes from the fact that all the plants will close their stomata in hot and dry weather to conserve moisture, and the continuing fixation of carbon from the air drops the CO2 dramatically from the atmospheric concentration of nominally 380 ppm (2004 value). If the CO2 compensation point is lower on the above scale, the plant can operate in hotter and dryer conditions. The limits are placed by the fact that begins to fix oxygen rather than CO2, undoing the work of photosynthesis. C4 plants shield their rubisco from the oxygen, so can operate all the way down to essentially zero CO2 without the onset of photorespiration.

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Recently, a new concept for FNR binding to plant thylakoids has been proposed. According to this model, a majority of chloroplast FNR is during periods of darkness bound to thylakoids via Tic62 and TROL proteins. In these conditions, surplus FNR is stored at the points of attachment, presumably stabilizing the FNR enzyme during the hours of photosynthetic inactivity. In the periods of changing light conditions, i.e. in the morning hours, FNR is released to stroma, where it acts as an efficient NADPH catalyst, allowing efficient LET. However, contrary to this scheme previous studies have reported that NADP+ photoreduction is very inefficient when the enzyme is not bound to the membranes and that thylakoids devoid of FNR cannot reproduce WT rates of NADPH production. Such scenario cannot be avoided even when high concentrations of soluble FNR are added. Further, in transgenic Arabidopsis plants enriched for FNR at TROL, a more rapid induction of NPQ during light transition and a higher ratio of PSI/PSII excitation were recorded, implicating enhanced CEF.