Acid-Catalyzed alpha halogenation of Ketones- enol intermediate

In this study we hypothesized that alternative fuels in the form of TCA cycle intermediates, specifically arginine-alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG), the main ingredient of the DP, and the ketogenic diet (KD), would increase motor function and survival in a mouse model.

The Claisen is used for the synthesis of b-ketoesters.

The Claisen is used for the synthesis of b-ketoesters.

6. The Malonate Ester Synthesis

The microbial reduction of 1′-ethylpropyl 2-methyl-3-oxopentanoate, a β-keto ester possessing bulky substituent, as well as the corresponding enol ester was examined. Epimeric mixture of hydroxy ester, containing (2S,3S-isomer as the major product (92%e.e., 43%d.e.) was obtained via the reduction of enol ester with growing cells of Pichia farinosa IAM 4682 in 63% yield. The resulting β-hydroxy ester was converted to (2S,3R)-isomer (88%e.e., 96%d.e.), of which e.e. was further enhanced by the lipase-catalyzed partial hydrolysis of the corresponding chloroacetate to give (-)-sitophilate, (99%e.e., 98%d.e.) an aggregation pheromone of Sitophillus granarius L.

6. The Malonate Ester Synthesis

N2 - The microbial reduction of 1′-ethylpropyl 2-methyl-3-oxopentanoate, a β-keto ester possessing bulky substituent, as well as the corresponding enol ester was examined. Epimeric mixture of hydroxy ester, containing (2S,3S-isomer as the major product (92%e.e., 43%d.e.) was obtained via the reduction of enol ester with growing cells of Pichia farinosa IAM 4682 in 63% yield. The resulting β-hydroxy ester was converted to (2S,3R)-isomer (88%e.e., 96%d.e.), of which e.e. was further enhanced by the lipase-catalyzed partial hydrolysis of the corresponding chloroacetate to give (-)-sitophilate, (99%e.e., 98%d.e.) an aggregation pheromone of Sitophillus granarius L.

The purported active ingredient in these products is arginine alpha-ketoglutarate.

Isotopically labeled alpha-keto acids and ..

Esters must have at least two a-hydrogen atoms to undergo the Claisen condensation; one hydrogen is removed to form the enolate, a second hydrogen is removed from the b-ketoester. The second proton abstraction is the driving force step.

(Synthesis of b-keto Esters) ..

Arginine-alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG) supplements are alleged to increase nitric oxide production, thereby resulting in vasodilation during resistance exercise.

Either monosubstituted or disubstituted b-ketoesters can be saponified and decarboxylated.

Oxygen Containing Compounds - Keto Acids and Esters

For instance, NO-Xplode has Vitamin B-6 (as pyridoxine HCl) 25 mg Vitamin B-12 (as Cyanocobalamin) 120 mcg Folic Acid 400 mcg Magnesium 360mg Phosphorus 500 mg Calcium 75 mg NO-XPLODE's Proprietary Blend 20.50 g NO Meta-Fusion Ener-Tropic Xplosion Taurine Glucuronolactone MCT Oil (Medium Chain Triglycerides) L-tyrosine AKG Methylxanthines (caffeine) Vincamine Vinburnine (whole plant) L-Tyrosine Common Periwinkle Vinpocetine Phospho-Electrolyte Replacers Di-Calcium Phosphate Di-Sodium Phosphate Di-Potassium Phosphate Glycerol Hydrating Polymers Glyceryl Stearate Magnesium Glycerol Phosphate Potassium Glycerol Phosphate AVPT (Advanced Volumizing and Performance Technology) Sodium Bicarbonate Cinnulin PF (Aqueous Cinnamon Extract) Glycocyamine Trimethylglycine Di-Creatine Malate Modified Glucose Polymer (Maltodextrin) RC-NOS (Rutaecarpine 95%) Sodium Creatine Phosphate Matrix Creatine Ethyl Ester-Beta-Alanine Dual Action Composite (CarnoSyn) Creatinol-O-phosphate-Malic Acid Interfusion Creatine AAB (Creatine Alpha-Amino-N-Butyrate) Guanidino Propionic Acid and Ketoisocaproate Potassium.

Malonate esters can be substituted in a fashion that resembles the acetoacetic ester synthesis:

A new synthesis of .alpha.-keto esters and acids

Esters must have at least two a-hydrogen atoms to undergo the Claisen condensation; one hydrogen is removed to form the enolate, a second hydrogen is removed from the b-ketoester. The second proton abstraction is the driving force step.

Similar to the acetoacetic ester synthesis, the substituted malonate ester can be saponified …

Convenient synthesis of .alpha.-keto esters.

AB - The microbial reduction of 1′-ethylpropyl 2-methyl-3-oxopentanoate, a β-keto ester possessing bulky substituent, as well as the corresponding enol ester was examined. Epimeric mixture of hydroxy ester, containing (2S,3S-isomer as the major product (92%e.e., 43%d.e.) was obtained via the reduction of enol ester with growing cells of Pichia farinosa IAM 4682 in 63% yield. The resulting β-hydroxy ester was converted to (2S,3R)-isomer (88%e.e., 96%d.e.), of which e.e. was further enhanced by the lipase-catalyzed partial hydrolysis of the corresponding chloroacetate to give (-)-sitophilate, (99%e.e., 98%d.e.) an aggregation pheromone of Sitophillus granarius L.