Structure of a fourth generation poly(alkyl aryl ether) dendrimer.

The synthesis and fungicidal activity of an aryl ether based triazole compound has the advantages of strong specificity inhibitory activity to peanut brown spot pathogen at 50ppm to 200ppm and ability to be used for preparing agricultural fungicides.

Aryl ether synthesis by etherification (arylation)

Structure of a 24 triarylphosphine ligand containing poly(alkyl aryl ether) dendrimer.
Photo provided by

Aryl ether synthesis by etherification (alkylation)

To conclude, transition-metal-free methodology to access sterically hindered alkyl aryl ethers by arylation of tertiary alcohols with -substituted diaryliodonium salts has been developed. The substrate scope includes cyclic, acyclic, propargylic, and allylic alcohols. The methodology has been extended to arylation of fluorinated primary and secondary alcohols and to arylations with electron-deficient -substituted diaryliodonium salts. The straightforward derivatization of the pro-drug mestranol illustrates the utility of the presented methodology. A detailed mechanistic study of -arylations with diaryliodonium salts is currently ongoing in our laboratory to understand the limitations in reactions with -unsubstituted electron-rich diaryliodonium salts.

Williamson ether synthesis - Wikipedia

In summary, a practical and efficient synthesis of new substituted aryl vinyl ethers 3 and diethyl 1-[(alkyl)(cyano)methyl]vinylphosphonates 4 has been developed. The application of diethyl (E)-1-(bromomethyl)-2-cyanovinylphosphonate 2 in other processes will be communicated in due course.

and  (2002)Synthesis of poly(alkyl aryl ether) dendrimers. In: Journal of Organic Chemistry, 67 (17). pp. 6282-6285.
Photo provided by

1.6 Williamson ether synthesis by Gabbar Singh Tutorials ..

The synthesis of ethers and functionalization of alcohols are broad research areas due to the prevalent occurrence of these compound classes as both starting materials and products in Nature and pharmaceuticals. However, traditional methods for synthesis of alkyl aryl ethers are all associated with difficulties, and the arylation of tertiary alcohols with electron-rich or sterically hindered arenes to obtain highly sterically hindered ethers is severely limited (a). Among the methods based on arylation of alcohols, SNAr reactions can be used. The method tolerates sterically congested alcohols as well as -substituted arenes, but the scope is limited to arenes activated by electron-withdrawing groups. Another approach is via aryne-type intermediates, which generally suffer from regioselectivity issues and the lack of bis- substituent patterns. While some transition-metal-catalyzed methodologies are compatible with tertiary alcohols, the combination of such substrates with -substituted aryl groups remains difficult, and examples with bis--substituted aryl groups are lacking. Furthermore, these methods usually require high temperatures and have problems associated with remaining traces of transition metals.

Copper(I) halide catalysed synthesis of alkyl aryl and ..

The Williamson ether synthesis of allyl phenyl ether and its subsequent Claisen rearrangement to 2-allylphenol introduces two important reactions of ethers to the undergraduate laboratory.

Williamson Synthesis Lab Report | Ether | Chemical …

The direct and selective synthesis of phenols from aryl/heteroaryl halides and KOH has been achieved through the use of highly active monophosphine-based catalysts derived from Pd2dba3 and ligands L1 or L2 and the biphasic solvent system 1,4-dioxane/H2O. We have also demonstrated a one-pot method of phenol formation/alkylation for the preparation of alkyl aryl ethers from aryl halides. In many instances, this protocol overcomes limitations in existing Pd-catalyzed coupling reactions of aliphatic alcohols with aryl halides. Finally, we demonstrate that substituted benzofurans can be prepared efficiently via a Pd-catalyzed phenol formation/cyclization protocol starting from 2-chloroaryl alkynes.


Alternatively, Mitsunobu-type reactions can be applied, which are limited by steric bulk on the alcohol and by the formation of waste. Addition to alkenes is another strategy to obtain sterically hindered alkyl aryl ethers. Such reactions require transition metals or acidic conditions and are usually intramolecular. Development of new methodologies is hence required to obtain highly sterically congested aryl ethers.