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The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

Properties of acrylic acid and esters

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Since its inauguration the EHC Programme has widened its scope, and the importance of environmental effects, in addition to health effects, has been increasingly emphasized in the total evaluation of chemicals.

The three most important binders (resins) used in modern paints are:

The original impetus for the Programme came from World Health Assembly resolutions and the recommendations of the 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment.

Depending on the type of paint and intended use, additives may include:

ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT, DISTRIBUTION AND TRANSFORMATION

The first Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) monograph, on mercury, was published in 1976 and since that time an ever-increasing number of assessments of chemicals and of physical effects have been produced.

Transport and distribution between media

The recommendations of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development and the subsequent establishment of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety with the priorities for action in the six programme areas of Chapter 19, Agenda 21, all lend further weight to the need for EHC assessments of the risks of chemicals.

Bioaccumulation and biomagnification

Scope The criteria monographs are intended to provide critical reviews on the effect on human health and the environment of chemicals and of combinations of chemicals and physical and biological agents.

ENVIRONMENTAL LEVELS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE

A detailed policy statement is available that describes the procedures used for unpublished proprietary data so that this information can be used in the evaluation without compromising its confidential nature (WHO (1990) Revised Guidelines for the Preparation of Environmental Health Criteria Monographs.

This unit discusses the most commonly used binders followed by the pigments.

Coating Ingredients/Ink Ingredients

Sagelsdorf P, Lutz WK, & Schlatter C (1988) Investigation of the potential for covalent binding of acrylic acid in vivo after oral and dermal administration, preliminary results.

Slone, R. V. 2010. Acrylic Ester Polymers. Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology. .

Physical and chemical properties

A non- occlusive "frame" device was cemented to the skin surface of animals to allow for free evaporation of acrylic acid, which was trapped using on-line volatile organic traps.

A global team of industry-recognized experts contributes incisive and thought-provoking analysis.

SOURCES OF HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE

Environmental Health Criteria PREAMBLE Objectives In 1973 the WHO Environmental Health Criteria Programme was initiated with the following objectives: (i) to assess information on the relationship between exposure to environmental pollutants and human health, and to provide guidelines for setting exposure limits; (ii) to identify new or potential pollutants; (iii) to identify gaps in knowledge concerning the health effects of pollutants; (iv) to promote the harmonization of toxicological and epidemiological methods in order to have internationally comparable results.