Williamson ether synthesis - Wikipedia
The Williamson ether synthesis is an ..
Giri, R.; Yu, J.-Q.
"Synthesis of 1,2 and 1,3-dicarboxylic Acids via Pd(II)-Catalyzed Carboxylation of" Aryl and Vinyl C-H Bonds""
Organic Mechanisms - Ethers - Acid Catalyzed Ring Opening
K.; Yu, J-.Q.
"Synthetic Applications of Pd(II)-Catalyzed C-H Carboxylation and Mechanistic Insights: Expedient Routes to Anthranilic Acids, Oxazolinones and Quinazolinones."
Mechanism of acid-catalyzed addition of water across an ..
If the enolate is protonated on oxygen, it generates the enol (step2 of the above mechanism), but if it protonates on carbon (see the reverse ofstep 1), it generates the carbonyl compound.
Mechanism for acid-catalyzed dehydration of 2,3-dimethylcyclopentanol
The combination of addition and elimination reactions has theoverall effect of substituting one nucleophile for another in thiscase, substituting an alcohol for water. The rate of these nucleophilicsubstitution reactions is determined by the ease withwhich the elimination step occurs. As a rule, the bestleaving groups in nucleophilic substitutions reactions are weakbases. The most reactive of the carboxylic acid derivativesare the acyl chlorides because the leaving groupis a chloride ion, which is a very weak base (Kb10-20).
See the mechanism of acid catalyzed ether ..
Once again, the reaction is relatively slow in the absence ofan acid or base catalyst. If we bubble HCl gas through thesolution, or add a small quantity of concentrated H2SO4,we get an acid-catalyzed reaction that occurs by a mechanismanalogous to that described in the previous section.