Acid-catalyzed reaction of an alcohol with a carbonyl

Jian He, Toshihiko Shigenari and Jin-Quan Yu
"Palladium(0)/PAr3-Catalyzed Intermolecular Amination of C(sp3)-H Bonds: Synthesis of b-Amino Acids"
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Williamson ether synthesis - Wikipedia

The following reaction can be used to illustrate the synthesisof an ester from a carboxylic acid

The Williamson ether synthesis is an ..

Giri, R.; Yu, J.-Q.
"Synthesis of 1,2 and 1,3-dicarboxylic Acids via Pd(II)-Catalyzed Carboxylation of" Aryl and Vinyl C-H Bonds""
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Organic Mechanisms - Ethers - Acid Catalyzed Ring Opening

K.; Yu, J-.Q.
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B. "A general, polymer-supported acid catalyzed hetero-Michael addition."  Synlett  2003,  1070.

Mechanism of acid-catalyzed addition of water across an ..

If the enolate is protonated on oxygen, it generates the enol (step2 of the above mechanism), but if it protonates on carbon (see the reverse ofstep 1), it generates the carbonyl compound.

Mechanism for acid-catalyzed dehydration of 2,3-dimethylcyclopentanol

The combination of addition and elimination reactions has theoverall effect of substituting one nucleophile for another in thiscase, substituting an alcohol for water. The rate of these nucleophilicsubstitution reactions is determined by the ease withwhich the elimination step occurs. As a rule, the bestleaving groups in nucleophilic substitutions reactions are weakbases. The most reactive of the carboxylic acid derivativesare the acyl chlorides because the leaving groupis a chloride ion, which is a very weak base (Kb10-20).

See the mechanism of acid catalyzed ether ..

Once again, the reaction is relatively slow in the absence ofan acid or base catalyst. If we bubble HCl gas through thesolution, or add a small quantity of concentrated H2SO4,we get an acid-catalyzed reaction that occurs by a mechanismanalogous to that described in the previous section.

B

Williamson ether synthesis - Revolvy

Zhang, X.-G.; Dai, H.-X.; Wasa, M.; Yu, J.-Q.
"Pd(II)-Catalyzed ortho-Trifluoromethylation of Arenes and Insights into Coordination Mode of Acidic Amide Directing Groups."
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α-Amino Acid synthesis by C-C coupling - Organic chemistry

Mengchun Ye, Andrew Edmunds, James Morris, David Sale, Yejia Zhang and Jin-Quan Yu
"A Robust Protocol for Pd(II)-catalyzed C-3 Arylation of (1H)Indazoles and Pyrazoles: Total Synthesis of Nigellidine Hydrobromide"
Chem.

Acid catalysed mechanism of the addition ..

Spangler, Anna Homs and Jin-Quan Yu
"Ligand-Controlled C(sp3)-H Arylation and Olefination in Syntheses of Unnatural Chiral a-Amino Acids"
Science 2014, 343, 1216.